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Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors V-Z)

Vago, S. and C. E. Marske (1980). "Law as a Method of Conflict Resolution in Academe." Journal of Educational Thought 14(1): 2-16.
After considering the processes and trends leading to the increasing litigiousness of American society, this paper documents and analyzes the progressive encroachment of the judiciary into academe as a legitimate means of conflict resolution. The impetus for these conflicts and the resulting types of lawsuits are investigated and implications drawn. (Author/SJL)

VanHecke, J. R. and D. E. Buckingham (1993). In the Spirit of Community: Student Centered Discipline. 75th Conference of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Boston, MA, ERIC.

Vicenti, D. and et al. (1972). The Law of the People (Dine Bibee Haz'Aannii): A Bicultural Approach to Legal Education for Navajo Students, Volume 1, Ramah Navajo School Board, N. Mex.
Volume 1 of a 4-volume bilingual bicultural law-related curriculum is made up of legal case histories from traditional Navajo tribal and state court cases dealing with consumer problems and personal property disputes. These case histories, which were compiled by local legal specialists, provide "role playing" situations (buying a car, dealing with the trader) for Navajo high school and college students who exist in a pluralistic legal environment, and are a guide for others who deal with the Navajo people and their legal problems. Objectives of the consumer education volume include helping the student to: understand his own traditional law ways for handling consumer and property disputes and compare these to the Anglo law ways; recognize different informal dispute resolution techniques; understand how tribal and state courts can be used to get consumer protection; and understand the principles involved in contractual agreements, mortages, etc. Teaching devices include role playing in English and Navaho (in the classroom as well as in the community); use of the casebook (supplemented by video tapes); and community involvement (forming consumer cooperatives, investing in savings and loan associations). Evaluation (by paraprofessional parent teachers, local advocates, and students) is based on the ability of the students to understand Anglo legal concepts of dispute resolution and to express them in terms of local law ways. (AH)

Victor, D. A. (1987). Teaching Cross-Cultural Conflict Management Skills: 7.
One of the most important areas for business educators to address in preparing their students to compete effectively in world markets is cross-cultural negotiating and conflict management. To do so, teachers must prepare students to understand the markets into which they enter as managers. The objective is not to learn a great deal about one culture or market, or to divide the world into foreign and domestic markets, but to promote a cross-cultural perspective on the global economy by training students to observe cultures and ask the right questions. An international business communication course offered at Eastern Michigan University takes a two-part approach to teaching conflict management and negotiation. In the first part, students are taught the seven factors most likely to change in a business setting across cultures: language, environment and technology, social organization, contexting, authority conception, nonverbal communication and behavior, and temporal conception. In the second part, students are taught to apply those factors to a five-step model for conflict management. While the approach is designed for business training, the concept underlying it can be applied to many disciplines in which cross-cultural interaction is a factor. (MSE)

Villa, J. and A. A. Blum (1996). "Collective Bargaining in Higher Education: Prospects for Faculty Unions." Journal of Collective Negotiations 25(2): 157-169.
University faculty members today face threats to their economic well-being, professional status, and academic freedom similar to the problems they faced in the 1970's. Universities have to cope with increasing governmental pressure to do more with less. Faculty governance, tenure, and academic freedom are under attack. Faculty are working fifty-four hours a week, up from an average of forty-five hours a week in 1977, and are doing so at a lower real wage than in 1972. During the 1970's, the answer for many in higher education was collective bargaining. This article investigates the results of union activity in higher education. A brief history of faculty unions in the U.S. is presented, followed by a review of the research on the effects of union activity. The article concludes with speculation on the prospects for the further expansion of collective bargaining in academia.

Vogt, M. T. (1975). Conflict Management: An Aid for University Development in a Turbulent Environment, American Council on Education Washington D.C. Academic Administration Internship Program.: 35.
The problems of management within the university community are discussed with consideration given to various facets of creative management. The nature of conflict is defined as a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power, and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure, or eliminate their rivals. The university administrator who wishes to perform effectively must be cognizant of the potential sources of conflict, identified as communication, structure, and personality and behavioral factors. The three sources are interrelated and conflict situations usually involve elements from all three. Methods for avoiding or resolving conflict are discussed and a model for university management outlined. It delineates five main sub-divisions of managerial work: statement of the goals; design of an appropriate organizational structure; design of a reward system based on the goal system; use of available technologies to help the unit meet its goals; and building of good interpersonal relationships with subordinates, peers, and superiors. Each of these sub-divisions is examined in detail. It is suggested that mutual commitment to conflict management between faculty and administrators should result in a more centralized decision making process and increased cohesion of the university community. (LBH)

Vogt, M. T. (1976). Conflict Management As An Integral Part of Planning in the University: 18.
Societal norms and values have changed so drastically during the last decade that educational institutions are being forced to respond and react to intense pressures both from inside and outside their own organizational structure. A forward looking institutional planning function requires that organizational forms and modes be arranged to anticipate and benefit from these often conflicting pressures and changes. This paper utilizes a conceptual planning model to critically examine the management of these conflicts relative to the planning process in the university. (Author)

Vogt, M. T. (1977). "Conflict Management as an Integral Part of University Planning." Educational Planning 3(4): 64-71.
Conflict within a university can produce beneficial results if it is managed properly. In a time of change, conflict may stimulate creativity as the members of a unit struggle to adjust to the new situation and survive. (Author/IRT)

Volpe, M. (1994). "CUNY Dispute Resolution Consortium." The Fourth R 48(January): 26.

Volpe, M. (1994). "An Urban University-based Conflict Resolution Program." Education and Urban Society 27: 22-?
The conflict resolution area, which became more focused in the 1980s, provides universities with opportunities to work with urban communities & effect social change. Most university- based programs now have outreach units into the campus & external communities. Negotiation, mediation, & related processes have been of most interest to academics. Student relate instances in which they have been able to use classroom practice in negotiation & mediation with a wide gamut of family & work situations. University professionals in conflict resolution have been able to form partnerships with private & public sector groups needing this expertise, providing education, training, & technical assistance. Work in conflict resolution on campus has even spurred community attention to conflict resolution in town meetings, housing associations, etc. 15 References.

Volpe, M. (1998). Using Town Meetings to Foster Peaceful Coexistence. Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence. E. Weiner. NY, Continuum Books.

Volpe, M. and R. Witherspoon (1992). "Mediation and Cultural Diversity on College Campuses." Mediation Quarterly 9(4): 341-51.

Wahrhaftig, P. (1997). "Norming, Storming and Forming a Gang Related Model for Conflict Resolution." Conflict Resolution Notes 15(1-2 September): 8-11.
This article is based on a workshop presented at the 1997 National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution (NCPCR). It was titled Bridging Our Gang-Penetrated Neighborhoods: A Cross-Cultural Experience. It discusses a collaborative effort of Duquesne University's Peace and Conflict Studies Program, Pittsburgh Mediation Center, Community Intensive Supervision Program (CISP), and various African-American community people to foster constructive conflict resolution skills among gang endangered youth.

Waldo, M. (1989). "Primary prevention in university residence halls: Paraprofessional-led relationship enhancement groups for college roommates." Journal of Counseling and Development 67: 465-470.

Walker, D. E. and et al. (1976). Collegiality and Collective Bargaining: An Alternative Perspective.
Collective bargaining as used in the business world is inappropriate for resolving disputes in the academic world, which prides itself on the unity of collegiality. An alternative approach to bargaining is proposed that capitalizes on both the spirit of collegiality and the pluralistic democracy by which most postsecondary institutions function. (Editor/LBH)

Walker, G. B. (1989). Peace Communication Research and Scholarship Opportunities in Related Disciplines and Forums: 17.
A number of academic and professional organizations offer peace communication scholars opportunities for cross- disciplinary dialogue. These include the: Consortium of Peace Research, Education, and Development (COPRED); Peace Studies Association; International Peace Research Association; Peace Science Society (International); International Studies Association; and International Association of Conflict Management. In addition to academic organizations, specialized conferences which may interest peace communication researchers are regularly listed in the "COPRED Peace Chronicle." A variety of academic journals appear receptive to interdisciplinary peace studies work, including peace communication scholarship. These include: "Peace and Change", a Journal of Peace Research, Norway's "Journal of Peace Research" and "Bulletin of Peace Proposals," "International Journal on World Peace," "International Studies Quarterly," "Internatonal Journal of Conflict Management," Canada's "Peace Research," Australia's "Pacific Research," and Sweden's "Bulletin of Peace Research." Major issues and contexts of peace and conflict generate other publications which can be identified. The "Peace Research Abstracts Journal" also provides the peace scholar with a unique source of information. A few of the professional enrichment opportunities for peace communication scholars include the: University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation's Summer Seminar, MIT/Harvard Program, Five College Program in Peace and World Security Studies, University of Wisconsin's Center for International Cooperation and Security Studies, and University of Hawaii's Pacific Peace Seminar. Peace communication scholars can play an active role in campus-wide peace education by teaching peace courses, working to establish a peace studies program, and incorporating communication courses into peace studies curricula. (MG)

Wallace, G. (1993). "Recent role variations in the ombudsman in education." UCI Ombudsman: The journal.

Wallace, G. (1993). "Institutional conflict work in democratic societies." UCI Ombudsman: The journal.

Warfield, W. (1995). Town and Gown: Forums for Conflict and Consensus Between Universities and Communities. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 63-69.
Discussion of the conflict common in the relationship between a college and its host community looks at some of its common characteristics and at institutional barriers to the use of alternative dispute resolution strategies using a third party. A preventive approach is recommended over reactive forms of resolution, and this approach is illustrated by the experience of one university. (MSE)

Warner, L. S. (1992). Dispute Resolution in Education. Annual Meeting of National Association for Women in Education, San Antonio, ERIC-ED346596.
see paper or ERIC for abstract

Warren, B. (1994). Survey of College/University Mediation Services, Indiana University-Bloomington.

Warren, R. L. (1982). Mediation of Conflicts: Some Personal Encounters. International Society of Political Psychology.
Mediation of Berlin Wall Crisis and a Black student takeover at Brandeis. good observations on methodology and ethical issues

Warters, B. (1984). UCSC Family Student Housing Project Mediation Program Proposal.

Warters, B. (1989). "Bring Mediation Onto Campus (BMOC)." Conflict Resolution Notes 7(1, June).

Warters, B. (1991). "Mediation on Campus: A History and Planning Guide." The Fourth R 45(June/July): 4-5.

Warters, B. (1995). "Making the Case for Campus Mediation." The Fourth R 55(February/March): 1, 9-11.

Warters, B. (1995). "Researching Campus Conflict Management Culture(s): A Role for Ombuds?" UCI Ombudsman: The journal.

Warters, B. and T. Hedeen (1991). Campus-based Mediation Programs Survey, Syracuse University.

Warters, B. and B. Sherman, Eds. (1990). Mediation In Higher Education: A Practical Reader, Syracuse University Campus Mediation Center.

Warters, B. and B. Sherman (1991). Annotated Campus Mediation Bibliography. Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Campus Mediation Center: 6.

Warters, W. (1990). Ready-Set-Go: Workshop Materials for Creating and Maintaining a Campus Mediation Program, Syracuse University.

Warters, W. (1991). Campus Mediation Program Planning Guide, Syracuse University Campus Mediation Center.

Warters, W. (1996). Graduate Studies in Dispute Resolution: Results of a Delphi Study. Mapping the Contours of Graduate Study in Dispute Resolution, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Nova Southeastern University.

Warters, W. (1997-99). Campus Mediation Resources Web Site. Detroit, MI, Wayne State University.

Warters, W. (1998). The History of Campus Mediation Systems:

Research and Practice. Reflective Practice in Institutionalizing Conflict Resolution in Higher Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution.

Warters, W. C. (1989). The Mediation Process in Higher Education. Dispute Resolution into the 90's: New Partnerships, Enhanced Techniques and Emerging Markets, Albany, NY, Community Dispute Resolution Centers Program of the United Court System of the State of New York.

Warters, W. C. (1992). The Application of Mediation on College Campuses: Theoretical and Practical Implications, Syracuse University Program on the Analysis and Resolution of Conflicts.

Warters, W. C. (1995). Conflict Management in Higher Education: A Review of Current Approaches. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 71-78.

Warters, W. C. (2000). Mediation in the Campus Community: Designing and Managing Effective Programs. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Warters, W. C. and P. Moses (1992). Organizational Cultures of College and University Campuses and its Impact on the Function of Campus Mediation Centers. Seventh New York State National Conference on Dispute Resolution, Kenesha Lake, NY, Community Dispute Resolution Centers Program of the Unified Court System of the State of New York, Albany.

Watkins, B. (1985). Unusual Sideline for Maine Academics: Helping People Settle Their Arguments. The Chronicle of Higher Education: 41-45.

Watt, W. (1994). Conflict Management: Using the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument To Assess Levels of Learning in the Classroom. Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, New Orleans, LA, ERIC Number ED383031.
A study determined if an individual's approach to conflict management could be altered by completing a college conflict resolution class. Subjects enrolled in a 3-hour, 16-week college conflict resolution course at a medium-sized, midwestern university. The pretest condition consisted of 15 females and 13 males, of whom 10 were undergraduate and 18 were graduate students. The posttest condition consisted of 14 females and 11 males, of whom 10 were undergraduate and 15 were graduate students. The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Assessment form was used as pre- and post-test measure of subjects' perceived response to conflict situations. Results indicated that: (1) subjects shifted toward a preference in using a collaborative management style but still continued to use competing and compromising management styles; (2) an overall gender effect existed in the shift of perceived management style; and (3) more educated group placed less reliance on avoidance than the less educated group. (Contains nine references and four tables of data.)

Watt, W. M. (1994). Conflict Management: Using the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument To Assess Levels of Learning in the Classroom: 18.
A study determined if an individual's approach to conflict management could be altered by completing a college conflict resolution class. Subjects enrolled in a 3-hour, 16-week college conflict resolution course at a medium-sized, midwestern university. The pretest condition consisted of 15 females and 13 males, of whom 10 were undergraduate and 18 were graduate students. The posttest condition consisted of 14 females and 11 males, of whom 10 were undergraduate and 15 were graduate students. The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Assessment form was used as pre- and post-test measure of subjects' perceived response to conflict situations. Results indicated that: (1) subjects shifted toward a preference in using a collaborative management style but still continued to use competing and compromising management styles; (2) an overall gender effect existed in the shift of perceived management style; and (3) more educated group placed less reliance on avoidance than the less educated group. (Contains nine references and four tables of data.) (Author/RS)

Waxman, M. (1987). "A nonlitigational approach to conflict resolution: The medical center as a model." Arbitration Journal 42(1): 25-34.

Weddle, C. J. (1992). "The case for "structured negotiation" in sexual misconduct cases." Synthesis: Law and Policy in Higher Education 4: 291-292.
The author sets forth six conditions that prescribe the use of structured negotiation of sexual misconduct cases on campus:

  • a) both parties voluntarily agree to participate and may withdraw at any time;
  • b) skilled mediators participate in the process both to assist students in reaching agreement and to balance the power dynamics;
  • c) the discipline system stands as a next step and enforces negotiated agreements;
  • d) a representative of the institution must approve the settlement before a commitment is made to the college to enforce it;
  • e) the parties are advised that only minimal internal documentation will be created and that records will be destroyed when both have graduated; nonetheless, both are also cautioned that the college or university cannot guarantee confidentiality in the event civil proceedings or criminal charges are initiated;
  • f) both parties are urged to confer with parents/family members and with legal counsel before entering into the mediation process. (p. 291)

Wehr, P. (1973). Conflict Regulation. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 7. Test Edition, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
This guide provides an introduction to the theories of why conflicts occur and presents models and techniques of conflict regulation. Some of the topics discussed are: legal regulation, the deterrence model, bargaining, third-party intervention, and self-limiting conflict processes. As examples of the latter processes, the Gandhian model of self- limiting conflict and the Norwegian resistance during World War II are presented. A report is then given on a teaching program allowing college students opportunities for involvement in community conflicts. Finally, an annotated bibliography and a group of classroom exercises are presented. (BB)

Wehr, P. (1986). "Conflict Resolution Studies: What Do We Know?" NIDR Dispute Resolution Forum(April): 3-4, 12-13.

Weick, K. E. (1976). "Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems." Administrative Science Quarterly 21(1): 1-19.

Weiner, S. S. and M. K. Rose-Pendleton (1977). Separate Realities: A Case Study of Disagreement in the Design of an Evaluation First Task Final Report: 74.
The National Institute of Education (NIE) had commissioned an evaluation project of certain postsecondary programs for nontraditional students that would involve decision makers in the core of the design activity. This report discusses the conflict that emerged between NIE and the Center for Research and Development in Higher Education (CRDHE) and the failure of their efforts to resolve the conflict. The terms of the initial agreement did not establish a clear priority between the design of an evaluation and the necessity of consultation with decision makers. Nor were the steps spelled out in operational terms. The center's intellectual interests and their ties inclined them to questions of direct interest to program managers. NIE, however, was primarily interested in serving federal decision makers' assessment as to how well specific groups were being served. The existence of this fundamental divergence did not become evident until it was too late to change the project. Furthermore, there was a clash of styles. CRDHE was accustomed to a collegiate style and relied little on hierarchical lines of authority. (Author/CTM)

Weisberger, J. (1976). Faculty Grievance Arbitration in Higher Education (Monograph 5), Ithaca, NY: Institute for Public Employment.

Westfield, D. and D. James (1997). Using ADR to develop a client service culture- Discovering mutual interests. ATEM Conference & AAPPA Conference, Sydney, Open Learning Australia.

Whitson, H. (1977). Strike! A Chronology, Bibliography, and List of Archival Materials Concerning the 1968-1969 Strike at San Francisco State College.
A history and chronology, together with a bibliography of relevant materials, focuses upon the student strike at San Francisco State College from November 1968 to March 1969, the largest in American academic history. The strike is set in its historical context, and minority student demands and major points of settlement are presented. The chronology lists events during the strike period. The bibliography is organized by type of document--general and specific monographs, theses and dissertations, periodical articles, and state and federal government documents. A separate listing of archival materials at the San Francisco State College Library and Audiovisual Center includes subject headings for the collection, newspapers, photographs, tapes and audiovisual materials, and art posters available for purchase. (MBR)

Whittaker, M. (1999). Hassled? Start mediating (peer mediation at the Royal Forest of Dean College in Gloucestershire, England). The Times Educational Supplement. London: 32.
The Royal Forest of Dean College in Gloucestershire is thought to be the first further education college in Great Britain to establish a peer-mediation service. Conflicts between disputing parties will be reconciled with the help of trained volunteers. The service is based on the antibullying and harassment codes already set by the college in consultation with students. The idea came from a catering college in Norway where ethnic differences among Bosnian refugees are being resolved through mediation.

Wilkenfeld, J., J. Kaufman, et al. (1995). The International Negotiation Seminars Project Project ICONS, Maryland Univ. College Park. Dept. of Government and Politics.: 181.
This report of a study at the University of Maryland describes an international, interactive, and interdisciplinary project for first- and second-year students, which combines a large lecture format with small-group, seminar-type sessions organized around a computer-assisted simulation model, the International Communication and Negotiation Simulation (ICONS). Students learned about negotiation strategies through case studies and materials on cross-cultural communication. Strategies were tested in a customized "New Europe Simulation," which features participation from a variety of central and eastern European universities. In addition to focusing on international issues such as trade and the environment, the project involved group decision making as students acted as negotiators for nations other than their own. Students also learned to use technology, including Internet resources and real-time computer conferencing. The simulation experience and the active-learning model were disseminated to other U.S. campuses. Evaluation results indicate high student involvement and identification with simulation roles and international perspectives, and excellent learning from the small group and networking aspects of the project. A course syllabus and other course materials are appended, along with articles about the project, and a list of participating institutions. (SW)

Williams, G. R. (1984). Using Simulation Exercises for Negotiation and Other Dispute Resolution Courses.
The design and use of simulation in teaching alternative dispute resolution are explored, and eight suggestions for the content, design, and sequence of simulation problems are presented. Examples are drawn primarily from negotiation but are adaptable for mediation and arbitration. (MSE)

Williams, J. O. (1971). Simulated Materials Useful in Training Negotiators.

Wilson, J. M. (1996). "Processes for resolving student disciplinary matters." New directions for student services 73(Spring): 35-52.
Campuses across the country have adopted an amazing variety of processes for resolving student discipline cases. This article compares and contrasts some of those processes and highlights strengths and weaknesses of different approaches.

Wilson, R. (1997). Colleges Get Psychological Help for Dysfunctional Departments. Chronicle of Higher Education: A10.

Wine, J. (1994). "Campus Mediation on the Move." Interaction: Quarterly Newsletter for the Network 6(Fall): 1-4.

Wing, L. (1994). "Multicultural Conflict Resolution Team/University of Massachusetts at Amherst." The Fourth R 48(January): 25-26.

Witt, S. L. and N. P. Lovrich (1988). "Sources of Stress Among Faculty: Gender Differences." Review of Higher Education 11(3): 269-284.

Yoder, S. L. and D. J. Brenner (1988). Organizational Politics in the News--University Dissent: Power Play or Whistleblowing?
Challenge to organizational authority, publicly presented in the local newspaper, can be either enlightening or trying for organizational managers and their public relations staff, depending on their viewpoint. Using a large public university as the organization, a study looked at these challenges and at what factors determine whether an organizational member who chooses to dissent publicly in the community press is more characteristically a power and control political player or a whistleblower. A content analysis of 144 newspaper articles (news and features) published between 1971 and 1986 in a community newspaper in the University of Missouri-Columbia area showed that public political behavior on the campus appears to be a group activity for the purpose of a power or control advantage, which challenges the idea that the dissenters are motivated by altruistic reasoning. Findings also indicate that the political language used in the dissent was opinionated, abstract, and presented negative aspects of the topic or problem instead of providing solutions. These language findings appear to support the view that dissenters are attempting to prevent rather than bring about change. (Four tables of data are included, and 24 references are appended.) (MS)

Young, D. P. and M. C. Braswell (1987). An Analysis of Student Academic Rights. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. J. Smart. New York, Agathon Press, Inc. Volume III.

Zagoria, S. (1969). "Mediation: A pathway to campus peace?" Monthly Labor Review 92(January): 9.

Zalman, M. "Dispute resolution curriculum development at Wayne State University." Focus on law studies: 3, 10.

Zdziarski, E. and B. Jackson (1994). The Nature, Scope, and Use of Mediation in Resolving Student Disputes. 15th Annual National Conference on Law and Higher Education, Clearwater Beach, FL.

Zdziarski, E. L. (1998). Alternative Dispute Resolution. The Administration of Campus Discipline. B. Paterson and W. Kibler. Asheville, NC, College Administration Publications: 233-248.

Zomalt, E. E. (1989). The Ethnic Studies Program Crisis: Conflict Resolution in a Multi-Ethnic Environment, 1974-1975, University of California Santa Barbara: 247.
This is a study of conflict resolution in a higher education organization. From 1973-1975 the minority community at the University of California, Santa Barbara engaged in a protracted struggle with the University's Administration over the maintenance and growth of minority programs. The minority community--Blacks, Chicanos, American Indians and Asian Americans--was supported internally by radical white faculty, staff and students and externally by a newly elected governor and state legislature. The conflict reached crisis proportions in the spring of 1975 when 17 students occupied the campus Computer Center. This act stimulated the Academic Senate leadership, which had not previously involved itself in the resolution of such conflicts, to intervene in hopes of reaching a compromise and resolving the conflict. An ad hoc negotiating group, facilitated by the Chair of the Academic Senate, was formed to examine the issues and propose solutions. The group recommended that an outside professional mediator be employed to assist the negotiators in their efforts to resolve the conflict. Within 14 days, from the initial ad hoc group meeting through the conclusion of the mediation process, the negotiating group was able to resolve the differences and agree upon six formal agreements which ensured the maintenance of minority programs at UCSB. The purpose of this study is to determine what factors contributed to the resolution of this conflict. How were these negotiators, assisted by a mediator, able to reach agreement on critical issues which had been the source of the conflict for two academic years. Since no written records of the negotiations or mediation proceedings were maintained, social science field study methodology with extensive use of unstructured interviews and participant observation was employed to gather data on the internal processes of the negotiations and mediation. Documentary research on the period provided background and context. The analysis of the data, supported by organizational theory, small group theory and the principles of mediation, demonstrate that the following factors contributed to the resolution of the conflict: (1) A flexible organizational structure which allowed Academic Senate officers to take the leadership in initiating discussions which led to resolution. (2) The effectiveness of integrators in maintaining the viability of the negotiating group throughout the process. (3) The growth of respect among the negotiators through the process. (4) A change in perception and an increased level of appreciation of each others' positions. (5) The discipline provided by the mediator and the mediation process. These factors along with the intensity of the preliminary negotiations (May 10-18) and the formal mediation (May 19-24) contributed to the resolution of this conflict and the restoration of calm to the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Zusman, A. (1984). The Legislature and the University: Conflict in Higher Education. ASHE 1984 Annual Meeting Paper.
Conflict over authority between the California Legislature and the University of California is examined. While the University of California has broad constitutional autonomy over academic matters, organization, and governance, the legislature has certain authority over the university under its own constitutional and budgetary powers. Attention is focused primarily on a particular conflict between the California Legislature and the University of California: the attempt to enact legislation to require the university to give faculty members access to their personnel files, including confidential letters of recommendation on which academic employment, tenure, and promotion decisions are based. In addition, four major conflicts between the university and the legislature that occurred between 1969 and 1978 are addressed: legislative response to campus disturbances (1969), establishment of a new state-level coordinating agency for higher education (1973), constitutional amendment for legislative control over competitive bidding procedures at the university (1976), and budget control language establishing criteria for faculty tenure and promotion (1977). Finally, implications for policy are briefly considered. (SW)

Zusman, A. (1985). Doctoral Study in Graduate Schools of Education: Conflict between Research Ethos and Professional Mission ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper: 29.
Impacts of conflicting academic and professional pressures on graduate schools of education in research universities are examined, along with reforms to reduce these conflicts. Information was obtained from reports and interviews at graduate schools of education, including the University of California at Berkeley, George Peabody College for Teachers at Vanderbilt University; Stanford University, Columbia University's Teachers College, the University of California at Los Angeles; and the University of Michigan. In schools offering both Ph.D. and Ed.D. degrees, most enrollments in education are in Ph.D. programs, most of which are applied, compared to the arts and sciences disciplines. In research universities an applied Ph.D. in education (as in other professional fields) is perceived by the "core" campus arts and sciences departments as illegitimate. At the University of California at Berkeley reforms were enacted to strengthen practice-oriented training through a revitalized Ed.D. program, while also maintaining separate research-oriented Ph.D. programs. Additional questions for doctoral study in education are included, along with a list of reviews of graduate schools of education. (SW)

Zusman, A. (1986). "Legislature and University Conflict: The Case of California." Review of Higher Education 9(4): 397-418.
Conflicts over authority between the California legislature and the University of California are examined. Compensatory strategies were adopted: authority was used in one area to gain control of a second. The outcomes of these conflicts and their policy implications for university independence and responsiveness are examined. (Author/MLW)

Zwingle, J. L. (1980). "Resolving Conflict in the Upper Echelons." New Directions for Higher Education 8(4): 33-41.
Conflict between president and governing board or within the governing board can be reduced, it is suggested, through informal third-party intervention. Some broad categories of conflict are named including the finance dilemma, the divided board, the domineering individual, the special interest syndrome, and the breakdown in confidence.

Zwingle, J. L. (1981). "Conflict in the Board Room." AGB Reports 23(4): 28-32.
Conflict between a president and a governing board can be reduced by third party intervention. Before a board changes presidents, trustees should seek the best available outside analysts to help clarify issues and circumstances and identify possible alternative courses. (MLW)