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Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors S-U)

Sacks, A. M. (1984). Legal Education and the Changing Role of Lawyers in Dispute Resolution.
The development in legal education of subjects and courses touching on alternative dispute resolution is traced, and the intellectual challenges generating those changes in the last few decades are outlined. Legal educators' responses to the movement and some related pedagogical issues facing institutions are discussed. (MSE)

Sagan, J. S. E. and T. P. E. Rebel (1995). Employment Issues in Higher Education: A Legal Compendium, National Association of Coll. and Univ. Attorneys, Washington, D.C.
This volume contains 32 articles and sample documents treating legal issues in higher education employment focusing on major issues arising in a non-unionized setting. The first of six sections contains seven articles on the employment relationship in general that touch on current legal trends in employee selection procedures, employment contracts, personnel policies, immigration law, the Family Medical Leave Act, health coverage for domestic partners, and overtime compensation liability. The next section, on accommodation issues arising from the Americans with Disabilities Act includes five papers that cover: (1) university counsel perspectives; (2) enforcement; (3) reasonable accommodation; (4) disabled students, staff, and faculty; and (5) employees with infectious diseases. Section 3 looks at issues of concern to faculty including academic freedom, performance evaluation issues, post-tenure faculty evaluation, and judicial review of tenure decisions. Section 4 presents six papers on managing employee conduct including such aspects as sexual harassment (liabilities and penalties, internal complaints and investigations, and performance), employee misconduct, and violence in the workplace. Section 5 addresses dispute resolution in four papers, one of which is a collection of five sample institutional grievance procedures. Section 6 contains six papers on concluding the employment relationship and covers wrongful termination, early retirement incentive plans, downsizing, and the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act. (Contains 37 references.) (JB)

Sahney, V. K., H. A. Knappenberger, et al. (1974). Subjective decision making under conflict of interest : a case study. West Lafayette, Ind., Institute for Research in the Behavioral Economic and Management Sciences Krannert Graduate School of Industrial Administration Purdue University.

Sakovich, M. (1983). Conciliation Programs at Colleges and Universities: Adaptation of Community Boards to Meet Campus Needs, Community Board Center for Policy and Training.

Sandeen, A. (1991). The Chief Student Affairs Officer: Leader, Manager, Mediator, Educator. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.

Sander, F. E. A. (1984). Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Law School Curriculum: Opportunities and Obstacles.
The study of dispute settlement is an emerging field with complex intellectual roots. It may provide a means of strengthening the law school curriculum with the human aspects of legal education and vital skills such as interviewing, counseling, negotiation, and mediation. (MSE)

Sandole, D. (1991). "Institutionalizing Conflict Resolution: The First Decade." ICAR News 4(2 Fall): 1-4.
Retrospective of first 10 years of nations first PhD granting program in conflict resolution at George Mason University. Academic and practice both stressed.

Sanoff, A., S. Minerbrook, et al. (1993). Students Talk About Race. At Chapel Hill, N.C., racial tension runs high. A special report. U.S. News and World Report: 57-64.
Conflict over a proposal to build a privately funded, free-standing black cultural center on campus.

Satryb, R. P. Faculty Grievances at SUNY: The First Two Years Under a Negotiated Contract, Academic Collective Bargaining Information Service Washington D.C.: 9.
Few union leaders, faculty members or administrators would dispute the fact that a viable grievance procedure is one of the cornerstones of a collective negotiated contract. Essential to successful contract administration and harmonious faculty administration relationships is a grievance procedure designed to provide an opportunity to resolve differences informally; a quick and fair hearing, when necessary, limited to contract interpretation; well reasoned decisions based on the facts; and a feeling of satisfaction for all parties arise out of the airing of differences. This report presents the results of an analysis of second and third level grievance reviews under the contract negotiated between the State University of New York and the Senate Professional Association. (Author/MJM)

Satryb, R. P. (1976). The Art of Settling Grievances: A Study in Campus Conflict Resolution Special Report No 27, Academic Collective Bargaining Information Service Washington D.C.: 10.
Based on visits to unionized campuses, this study determined how some imaginative higher education administrators and faculty representatives resolve disputes under a collective bargaining contract. The focus of the study was on the informal working relationships that helped to resolve conflict either within or outside the contractual procedures. Although grievance procedures were studied and discussed, they were considered to provide only the framework within which the parties attempted to resolve their differences. Differences between a procedural grievance (charging that the administration failed to adhere to contractual procedures) and a substantive grievance (charging the administration with making an unjustifiable decision) were also an important aspect of the study. In eight of the nine institutions studied, both management and labor representatives were interviewed and were allowed to pursue a wide variety of topics to determine the unique relationships existing at each institution. Topics included: representation on grievance committees; procedures; fair resolution; secretive vs. open processes; faculty and administrative reactions; union-faculty senate relationship; political considerations; institutional communication; multicampus grievance reviews; and consistency. (LBH)

Scherer, R. (1984). When union strife splits a college campus, U.S. News & World Report. 1998.

Schiada, G. E. (1998). Responding to Potentially Violent Behavior in the Distressed College Student: a Training Manual, United States International University: 197.
The United States has become an increasingly stressful and violent country in recent decades. The use of violence as a method to cope with frustration and resolve conflict has become increasingly common, not only in the larger context of society but on our college campuses as well (Whitaker & Polard, 1993). This societal trend has led to an increase in disruptive behavior reported by school personnel throughout the nation. College students are experiencing increased levels of frustration and stress due to waning economic resources, soaring costs of education, increased job competition, decreased social support, and the pressure to perform multiple roles (Nichols, 1995). The ability to recognize the signs of emotional distress in the college population and respond effectively may lead to successful problem resolution and avoidance of potentially dangerous situations. The present project consists of a training video and a manual designed to help faculty, staff, and other campus support personnel who interact directly with students in order to detect, prevent, intervene, and assist distressed students. The aim of the video and manual is three-fold: (1) to protect the individuals who may be the targets of aggressive behavior by increasing their awareness regarding the signs and symptoms of possible violent behavior; (2) to provide strategies on how to respond effectively to potentially violent behavior; (3) to detect and protect the distressed student who may become potentially violent toward himself or others by increasing the likelihood of early intervention and/or prevention by a faculty or staff member. The training manual and video highlight four potentially violent situations or case examples that may be encountered in a university setting. A description of the individual's behavior, guidelines for understanding the problem, and suggestions for responding effectively are presented.

Schneider, A. (1998). Insubordination and intimidation signal the end of decorum in many classrooms, Chronicle of higher education. 1998.

Schnell, J. (1985). Organizational Culture and Conflict Resolution: A Study of a Greek Lettered Social Organization, University of Cincinatti.

Schoem, D. (1997). Intergroup Relations, Conflict, and Community. Democratic Education in an Age of Difference: Redefining Citizenship in Higher Education. R. Guarasci and G. Cornwell. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
David Schoem's article outlines the University of Michigan's Program on Intergroup Relations, Conflict, and Community. His piece is part of a collection of seven essays focusing on programs that attempt to increase undergraduates understanding of social differences while building a sense of campus community.

Schoenfeld, C. (1994). "Campus Cultures in Conflict." CUPA Journal 45(4 Win): 29-33.
The two major cultures existing on a college campus, collegial/scholarly and administrative/corporate, can operate counterproductively. Campus human resource professionals have a role in reconciling the two cultures through orientation programs for new faculty and staff, promoting social and intellectual interaction of personnel, and communication with the campus community.

Scott, J. J. (1990). Integrating the Theory of Nonviolence into College and University Communities. American College Personnel Association Annual Conference, St. Louis, Missouri.

Seagren, A. T. (1993). The Department Chair: New Roles, Responsibilities and Challenges. ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, George Washington Univ.
This digest explores the changing role of the academic department chair in the areas of leadership, influence, and faculty development. The paper uses research insights to explore the situation of an academic chair who is squeezed between the demands of upper administration and the expectations of faculty, staff, and students. Studies of the roles and responsibilities of chairs consistently show that the chair's role is ambiguous, unclear in authority, and difficult to classify as faculty or administrator. The tradition of faculty ownership dictates that chair leadership must emphasize empowering activities. The most effective use of political influence and power understands the political forces and processes of the institution and maneuvers groups and coalitions to achieve the autonomy and control necessary to a strong department. Faculty evaluation provides the chair with a powerful opportunity for developing quality. In addition, the chair must recognize how institutional type, history, and culture, model of governance, and discipline can influence what is expected. In the coming years chairs will need a program of professional development on many fronts to acquire the skills to address the complex challenges they will face.

Sebok, T. (1994). "Lessons from Mediation: An Examination of Disputant Behaviors During Mediation Which Seem to Elicit Either Cooperation or Resistance." UCI Ombudsman: The journal 1994.

Senate, C. C. C. A. (1996). Toward a Nonviolent Campus Climate: Conflict Resolution. Sacramento, California Community Colleges Academic Senate Educational Policies Committee.
Changes in the demographics of the student population, the political climate, the economic health of CA and the nation, and the availability of public support services have contributed to an emerging climate of violence as a means of problem solving or as a consequence of frustration. Community college faculty and staff may protect their students and themselves by understanding and recognizing the perspectives of students and adopting intervention approaches that emphasize communication skills and conflict resolution techniques rather than authoritative force.

Serr, R. L. and R. S. Taber (1987). Mediation: A Judicial Affairs Alternative. Enhancing Campus Judicial Systems. R. Caruso and W. W. Travelstead. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. 39 Fall: 73-83.

Severance, L. A. (1997). Critical Tasks For Job Effectiveness For Special Education Administrators: a Delphi Study Forecast (Administrators), Texas a&M University: 190.
The purpose of this research was to identify and prioritize critical tasks for job effectiveness for the special education administrator (SEA). A Delphi panel of 25 special education administrators was nominated and selected to participate in the study. Through a series of three rounds, employing reiterative questionnaires, the panel moved toward consensus on the priority ratings of 263 critical tasks, representing 21 categories, for the immediate future (0-5 years) and the distant future (10-20 years). The priority ratings were computed, and a mode for each was calculated. Members who were unable to move toward consensus were asked to write a minority report. The data collected is reported in 18 tables that detail the rank order of those tasks found to be of critical importance for each period, percentage consensus within categories and percentage consensus between categories. A complete summary of all tasks is provided in the appendices including the frequency distribution of responses, movement toward consensus from Round Two to Round Three, and minority reports. The critical tasks enumerated by this Delphi panel of SEAs reflect the current literature and the results of ongoing trends in education across the country. Ten tasks were rated highest priority for 1996-2001 by 65% of the respondents and 22 tasks were rated highest priority for 2006-2016. The tasks identified as highest priority point out the necessity for advanced knowledge in eight of these category areas. It is recommended that departments of educational administration preparatory programs emphasize such topics as Finance, Administration, Communication, Mediation/Conflict Resolution, Technology, Leadership, School Law and Program Delivery. It is also recommended that this study serve to aid superintendents in identifying those tasks to be performed by SEAs and as a basis for how they should be evaluated. Implications for further research included a survey of special education administrators to determine if there are differences in perspective because of small versus large school size, rural/urban/metropolitan area, building or district wide supervision. Also, to survey college and university course offerings in special education administration to determine if current educational administration coursework addresses the critical tasks identified by this study.

Shaw, K. A. (1988). "Making Conflict Work for You." New Directions for Higher Education (No. 61 (Leaders on Leadership: The College Presidency) v16 n1 p53-58 Spr 1988).
Techniques of conflict resolution are discussed as a means of effecting constructive change. The Collegial, Zero-Sum, and Strategic Negotiation models of conflict are outlined, a sequence of necessary resolution steps is presented, and an approach for arbitrating third-party disputes is proposed. (MSE)

Shelton, M. W. (1995). Squad as Community--A Group Communication Perspective on the Debate Workplace.
Virtually everyone involved with forensics has, at one time or another, seen or heard references to debate teams or squads as "groups." Many questions concerning the label "group," however, exist. A brief examination of definitions of the term group by scholars in the field of small group communication confirms that T. M. Newcomb's observation still holds true-- the term group is difficult to define. Criteria that are given attention in analyses of groups are group size, amount of interaction, whether the group defines itself as a group and whether outsiders see it as a group, whether the members share common interests and norms, whether members participate in interrelated roles, whether they are interdependent, whether they share an identity with each other, and whether the members find the group rewarding. A review of the literature, in other words, suggests most definitely that debate teams are groups, which raises a number of research possibilities. For instance, an empirical investigation of the decision-making processes employed by debate groups might provide useful information for debaters, coaches and program directors. Also, research on debate groups might reveal efficient mechanisms for resolving disputes regarding case construction, argument development and so forth. Research, finally, might also look into how leaders lead in a debate group. (Contains 43 references.) (TB)

Sherrill, J. M. (1989). "Models of Response to Campus Violence." New Directions for Student Services 47: 77-88.

Shubert, J. and J. Folger (1980). "Handling student grievances in higher education." New Directions for Higher Education 32: 43-.
Appeal procedures at the Univ. of MI illustrate one way institutions can protect student interests and assure due process for students.

Shubert, J. J. and J. P. Folger (1986). "Research Report/Learning from Higher Education." Negotiation Journal 2(4): 395-406.

Sidel, R. (1995). "Battling Bias: College Students Speak Out." Educational Record 76(2-3): 44-52.
Students from a variety of colleges comment on their personal experiences on campus with racial/ethnic bias or bias based on homosexuality. A number of the students embraced activism as a coping strategy. The institution's role in attending to the needs of all students, minority and majority, is discussed. (MSE)

Sigel, R. S. (1977). Students Comprehension of Democracy and Its Application to Conflict Situations: 34.
This paper analyzes a study designed to determine if students understand the concept of democracy and can apply democratic principles. It also compares the study with related investigations conducted in Europe and calls for improved teaching to make the concept of democracy comprehensible. In 1974, 1,000 high school seniors in Pennsylvania participated in a study conducted by the Survey Research Institute of Temple University. The study is based on the rational-activist model of democracy which asserts that government responds to the majority but protects the minority and that citizens keep informed, participate in party politics, and resort to political activism when necessary. Results show students not only have great difficulty in articulating what they understood about democracy, but also have a simplistic, narrow, and ethnocentric view of democracy. Personal freedoms and representative government are recognized, but collective goals, the necessity of party conflict, and the interrelationship of the principles of democracy are not understood. Students with a better understanding of democracy participate more in political activism. However, there is no significant correlation between a student's grasp of the concept of democracy and his ability to apply democratic principles when presented with hypothetical conflict situations. Two related studies conducted in Austria and in 11 democratic nations of Western Europe show similar results. It is concluded that democracy as a concept is comprehensible when it is effectively taught. (Author/LAA)

Sillars, A. L. (1980). "Attributions and Communication in Roommate Conflicts." Communication Monographs 47: 180-200.

Singletary, C. R. (1994). The Nature, Scope and Use of Mediation in Resolving Employment Disputes. 15th Annual National Conference on Law and Higher Education, Clearwater Beach, FL.

Sisson, V. S. and S. R. Todd (1995). "Using Mediation in Response to Sexual Assault on College and University Campuses." NASPA Journal 32(4): 262-69.
Describes policies and procedures for using mediation as one alternative for adjudicating sexual assault cases, and examines factors to consider for implementation. Mediation gives survivors an opportunity to confront accused in a safe environment and to regain a feeling of control in life. Provides recommendations based on experiences at the University of Virginia. (JBJ)

Sklar, B. (1970). Faculty culture and community conflict: An historical, political and sociological analysis of the October 18, 1967 Dow demonstration at the University of Wisconsin, University of Chicago: viii, 412 l.

Slaton, C. and T. Becker (1981). Hawaii's Community Mediation Service: The university-based model of neighborhood justice centers. Annual Meeting of American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Slaton, C. D. (1994). Community Mediation Service: A Model for Teaching Democracy and Conflict Resolution: 32.
This paper depicts the origins, operation, and success of the Community Mediation Service established at the University of Hawaii, Manoa in 1979. During the 1970s, a national impetus for change arose out of stresses in the justice system including clogged courts, expensive and lengthy litigation, distrust of lawyers, and dissatisfaction of both winners and losers with outcomes. Proponents of community justice in Hawaii studied the three models of alternative dispute resolution: (1) the agency model that operates as part of a government agency; (2) the community model that operates independently of government at the grass-roots level, and (3) the agency-affiliated model that operates outside of a government agency but with government cooperation. After holding community meetings, conferences with experts, undergraduate classroom simulations, and graduate seminars, faculty and students at the University of Hawaii created a fourth model, the university-based community justice center. University faculty and students underwent training in mediation and volunteered their time to administer the program and to serve as mediators. While keeping costs low, the program achieved very high success rates in resolving disputes and satisfying participants. Students and researchers constructively combined theory in practice and gained valuable experience in politics and personal relations. (JD)

Slaton, C. D. (1996). The community mediation service: A model for teaching democracy and conflict resolution. Teaching Democracy by Being Democratic. T. L. Becker and R. A. Couto. Westport, Praeger: 184.
This volume links theory to practice by featuring tested techniques in teaching democracy by being democratic in the classroom. The book is divided into three parts and six chapters with an introduction presenting a theoretical and analytical framework of democracy and democratic pedagogy. Part 1 features "The Democratic Classroom" and includes (1) "Students in Charge" (William R. Caspary) and (2) "Personal Empowerment" (Louis Herman). Part 2, "Beyond Classrooms and Internships," contains (3) "Service Learning: Integrating Community Issues and the Curriculum" (Richard A. Couto) and (4) "Applying Democratic Theory in Community Organizations (Richard Guarasci; Craig A. Rimmerman). Part 3, "Innovative Democratic Institutions within the University," discusses (5) "The Community Mediation Service: A Model for Teaching Democracy and Conflict Resolution" (Christa Daryl Slaton) and (6) "Televote: Interactive, Participatory Polling" (Theodore L. Becker). The volume concludes with an afterword, a bibliography, and an index. (CB)

Smith, C. (1987). Roommate Communication and Compatibility: a Contractual Approach, Mississippi State University: 59.
This study was designed to determine the effects of the Roommate Communication Guide and Roommate Contract on roommate communication and compatibility. The subjects for this study were 456 randomly selected full-time freshman students living in six Mississippi State University residence halls during the fall semester of 1985. Three residence halls housed freshman men and three residence halls housed freshman women. From this population 276 completed surveys were received. The treatment group received a roommate contract and communication guide that included such issues as drinking, smoking, visitors in the room, and conflict resolution through discussion. The contract and guide were used to enhance compatibility and communication between roommates. Compatibility referring to the students' degree of satisfaction or liking, for their roommates (Lapidus, Green and Baruh, 1985). The dependent variables of communication and compatibility were measured by the Roommate Survey. The Roommate Survey, consisting of the Roommate Communication Scale and the Hulick Roommate Compatibility Scale, was administered to residents in both the experimental and control groups 3 weeks before the end of the fall semester. The statistical technique utilized to analyze the data was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance. The 3 factors were contract status, roommate assignment and gender. The contracted roommate pairs attained a significantly higher degree of communication than noncontracted roommate pairs. However, there was no significant increase in compatibility between the roommate pairs. Additionally, there were no significant differences in communication and compatibility between males and females.

Smith, D. B. (1994). "Student Discipline in American Colleges and Universities: A Historical Overview." Educational Horizons (Special Issue: The Challenges of Discipline - From Violence to Conflict Resolution) 72(2): 78.

Smith, G. (1981). Applied Communication: Use of Speech Communication Faculty Expertise in University Administration.
Based on the observation that speech communication faculty often contribute their expertise in the business world but seldom have the opportunity to do so where administrative policy is concerned, a study was conducted to determine how active the speech communication expert is in the development and implementation of policy on his or her campus. Subjects were 226 members of the Speech Communication Association (SCA) selected from the "Speech Communication Directory," 1980. The subjects, representing four academic ranks, a ratio of men to women similar to that of the SCA, and a variety of sizes and types of institutions, were asked to respond to a 15-question survey by indicating the amount of involvement they had with service to the institution. The return of the survey was 54%, or 122 respondents. According to the results, service in committee work occured frequently, but there was little opportunity for service on committees as communication experts for mediation of conflict, trouble shooters for communication problems, or committee leaders. There was very little opportunity to serve the college administration as spokespersons or speech writers, or as parliamentarians to the faculty senate. There was also little participation in advising administrators on ways of improving vertical communication between administration and faculty, and 91% indicated that they had never been asked to conduct a workshop in listening by their administration. (HTH)

Smith, M. (1989). Meetings of the (Peaceful) Minds: A Survey of Convention Opportunities for Peace Communication Researchers.
A study was conducted to ascertain what speech communication convention outlets might be available to peace communication researchers. Seven issues of the Consortium for Peace Research Education and Development's (COPRED) "Peace Chronicle," a publication which offers one of the more comprehensive listings of conventions, events, and other peace resources available, were examined. Information was classified according to the following schema: communication related, educational training and peace studies, dispute resolution and mediation, personal and professional development, activism, talks and exhibits, science, international, and unrelated or unclear. The most frequently occurring conferences were those dealing with dispute resolution, peace studies, science, and international. Results indicated that very few outlets exist specifically for "peace communication" research. But the field is fertile for sharing research and expertise with professionals from other fields. The study did not consider the role of the regional speech communication conventions, yet the evidence shows that these conventions, too, offer peace communication conference opportunities. (Two tables of data are included.) (MG)

Smith, R. R. and D. Moore (1990). A Public University's Defense of Free Expression: The Issues and Events in the Staging of "The Normal Heart ": 21.
In 1989, some Springfield, Missouri residents demanded cancellation of the Southwest Missouri State University (SMSU) theater department's production of Larry Kramer's play, "The Normal Heart," which they alleged to be obscene. Opponents purchased newspaper advertisements which charged that the publicly funded production promoted a "homosexual, anti-family lifestyle." They held a rally, which attracted approximately 1,200 demonstrators. SMSU's attorney argued that the First Amendment barred cancellation absent substantial government interest, and asserted that the play was not obscene. Play opponents did not raise constitutional arguments, but suggested that freedom without commitment to moral order amounted to a "free-for-all." Some proponents of the production used the occasion to further AIDS education, while others labelled the play's critics as bigots. An arson incident brought national attention to the controversy and accusations from both sides in the dispute. The university formed a committee to oversee security for the play's performances. Rhetorical strategies used by SMSU managed to divert attention away from the idea of public funding for allegedly immoral activities and toward the idea of free expression, while assuring the play's presentation. While AIDS awareness may have been heightened, gay rights issues were overshadowed by the controversy. (Forty endnotes are included.) (SG)

Spees, E. R. (1989). Higher Education: An Arena of Conflicting Philosophies. New York, Lang.

Stam, J. and J. V. Baldridge (1971). The Dynamics of Conflict on Campus: A Study of the Stanford April Third Movement, Stanford Univ., Calif. School of Education.
This paper develops a theoretical framework for analyzing campus conflict and crisis as a social movement. The authors argue that political frameworks are necessary to understanding the dynamics of interest group activities that are directed toward influencing policy. Using the political framework, a number of propositions are advanced concerning interest group activities, the political motivations of partisan groups, the social control activities of authorities, and the cycle that the conflict goes through. A case study of a student conflict at Stanford University is used to give plausible support to the propositions. Although such a case study is in no sense proof of the propositions, it nevertheless clarifies issues and helps locate weaknesses and strengths in the theoretical framework. (Author/HS)

Stamato, L. (1980). "Taking the Initiative: Alternatives to Government Regulation."
Increased self-regulation is seen as the most promising means to bridge the present gap between government requirements and campus compliance. Academic institutions need to develop new self-directed methods for resolving conflict. Building a mediation component into grievance procedures is one solution. (MLW)

Stamato, L. (1989). "Making Mediation Work for Disadvantaged Students: A project of Rutgers University." Conflict Resolution Notes 7(1, June).

Stamato, L. (1992). The Campus as Community, Rutgers Center of Negotiation and Conflict Resolution.

Stein, R. H. and R. F. Baron (1983). One Area of Conflict between Public Higher Education and Private Businesses: Student Commercial Enterprises.
Reviews the conflict over student-sponsored commercial enterprises on legal and philosophical bases, illustrated by several court cases. Considers nonjudicial challenges to such activities and proposes guidelines colleges can follow to minimize conflict. (JAC)

Stein, T. E. (1994). An exploration of conflict resolution within gay, lesbian and bisexual intimate relationships of graduate and undergraduate university students : a project based upon an independent investigation: iv, 58 leaves.

Stern, L. (1990). "1990 Ombudsperson Survey." UCOA Newsletter Fall.

Stern, M. R., Wadsworth Publishing Company., et al. (1983). Power and conflict in continuing professional education. Belmont, Calif., Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Stevens, E. H. (1996). "Informal Resolution of Academic Misconduct Cases." College Teaching 44(Sept): 140.

Stewart, K. L. (1978). "What a university ombudsman does: A sociological study of everyday conduct." J of higher ed 49(1): 1-22.

Stewart, T. (1982). Mediation Process For Students in Higher Education, University of Maryland College Park: 169.
This study investigated whether dispute processing through mediation, resembling that found in the labor- management field, can be applied to two-party, minor, interdependence interpersonal disputes (TPMIID) between higher education students and between higher education students and members of the university or surrounding community. A random sample of 150 resident juniors and 150 resident seniors enrolled full time at the University of Maryland, College Park were selected for the study. The instrument used for collecting the data was a mail questionnaire, designed by the researcher, which was self-administered by the respondents. The response rate was 70%. The following research hypotheses were tested: (1) Students in higher education seek assistance, through mediation, for conflicts of interest (scarce commodities) rather than conflicts of values (beliefs) in TPMIID. (2) Students in higher education prefer cooperative (positive-sum) rather than competitive (zero- sum) outcomes for TPMIID. As a secondary interest, the researcher reported the traits of the responding sample with respect to selected demographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, major, educational level, and race to the independent variables of the study. While it is an area of interest, it is somewhat ancillary and thus no research hypothesis was offered. In order to test the first research hypothesis, a one- tailed dependent t-test was performed. The value of the t statistic was statistically significant (19.72) and supported the research hypothesis. In order to test the second research hypothesis, a two- tailed independent t-test was performed. The value of the t statistic was not statistically significant (- 2.95) and refuted the research hypothesis. The study found that 82.2% of the responding sample seek assistance, through mediation, for conflicts of interest and 83.2% seek assistance, through adjudication, for conflicts of values. In relation to preferences regarding dispute outcomes, 45.3% prefer cooperative and 54.5% prefer competitive. On the basis of these findings, it is possible to conclude that mediation can be useful for TPMIID between higher education students and between higher education students and members of the university or surrounding community in large, public four-year institutions of higher education. Secondly, respondent demographic traits did not influence choices related to the independent variables of the study.

Stieber, C. (1991). "Perspectives on the Profession: Past, present, future." The Journal.

Stobbe, S. (1998). Implementation of Action Evaluation Methodology in a Conflict Studies Course. Innovations in Evaluation Conference, World Wide Web.
This paper describes the rationale and use of Action Evaluation in helping to promote a more participatory education, in this case using a college-level introductory Conflict Resolution Studies (CRS) course. Action Evaluation, developed by Dr. Jay Rothman, encourages self-reflection, active participation, and empowerment of all participants. It assists participants to define, monitor and reevaluate their goals. "Sharing their ideas while they are still formulating them promotes a constructive scrutiny of these ideas, . . . when such goals are implemented, they can be systematically tracked and monitored. As they evolve and change, .. . . self-conscious and educated choices about such changes can then be made" (Rothman, 1997). At the completion of the course, a criteria for success can be established through the achieved goals. An Action Evaluation was implemented within this course, and the baseline, formative and summative stages of the evaluation are discussed and analyzed.

Stover, D. (1991). "Racism Redux." Executive Educator 13(12): 35-36.
Surveys confirm the prevalence of racism and prejudice in schools and colleges. School executives are offered the following strategy: (1) establish that prejudice will not be tolerated; (2) get students involved; (3) expand contacts between racial groups; (4) offer students training in conflict resolution; and (5) provide staff inservice training. (MLF)

Strosnider, K. (1998). "Colleges Face Prickly Dilemma When Donors or Their Heirs Renege on Promised Gifts." Chronicle of Higher Education 44(42): A35-A36.
Cases in which colleges and universities have taken a donor or his/her heir to court over promised donations, while rare, have been spotlighted recently. Ordinarily, institutions avoid such public battles through careful gift planning or quiet settlement of disputes. However, some feel such cases will multiply because donors and heirs are becoming more prone to litigation. (MSE)

Swell, L. (1992). "Educating for Success. A Program to Enhance the Self Concept of Freshmen on a Large College Campus: An Evaluation." Canadian Journal of Higher Education 22(2): 60-72.
Educating for Success, an instructional program designed to enhance college student self-esteem through analysis of personal successes and strengths, values identification, conflict management, and positive reinforcement was validated with 394 first-year college students in experimental and control groups. Results showed significant improvement of self- concept among participants, supporting the program's utility. (MSE)

Swenson, N. G. Higher education collective bargaining in the trenches: Dispute resolution in higher education collective bargaining. Chicago, Cook County college teachers union: 107-109.

Szlawski, G. (1983). The University Visitor: A Guest from Another Age.
Legal and historical issues in the establishment and maintenance of the office of University Visitor in Australian universities are examined, and pertinent British and Australian legislation is cited. The traditional and disputed role of the Visitor as a liaison between corporation and government is discussed, and recent court litigation is outlined. (MSE)

Tagliacozzo, D. M. (1984). Conflict Avoidance and University Management: 29.
The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the conditions intensifying conflict avoidance are the problems of authority embedded in the history of an organization, in the nature of search processes, in characteristics of administrative careers, and in the problems that attend selective centralization of decision-making. It is suggested that many of the issues facing universities require new approaches. Such changes cannot be achieved without hierarchical support of strategic objectives, coordination of programs involving more than one department, and unambiguous delegation of authority, as well as flexible criteria for resource allocation. Overly cautious management centralizes selectively and delegates ambivalently. The positive functions of conflict should receive more emphasis, and experimentation and risk-taking should be encouraged. (SW)

Taylor, A. (1992). Establishing Effective Relationships with Faculty and Staff. Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. M. I. Hickson and D. Stacks. Albany, State University of New York Press: 23-40.

Thomas, N. L. (1998). "The Attorney's Role on Campus: Options for Colleges and Universities." Change 30(3): 34-42.
Over several decades, the field of higher education law has evolved from an informal "interest" to a complex and sophisticated legal specialty. Specific trouble spots for college and university attorneys can be anticipated, with written policies establishing channels of communication concerning conflict resolution, who can seek legal advice, and how requests will be answered. (MSE)

Tidwell, A. (1997). "Problem Solving for One." Mediation Quarterly 14(4): 309-317.
This article describes the development of problem solving for one (PS1), a process designed for situations in which only one party to a dispute is present for mediation. The process seeks to assist the lone party in developing conflict management plans and strategies.

Tierney, W. G. (1991). "Utilizing Ethnographic Interviews to Enhance Academic Decision Making." New Directions for Institutional Research 72(Winter): 7-21.

Timmins, W. M. (1988). "Resolving University Landlord/Tenant Disputes." Negotiation Journal(January).

Troester, R. and C. S. Mester (1987). Teaching Peace in the College Speech Class: A Survey of Current Practice: 16.
A survey was conducted to examine the role of peace education within existing speech communication programs and to describe that role both in terms of curricular and research priorities. Respondents, 113 department Chairs out of a total of 578 on the Speech Communication Association's list of institutions offering degrees in communication, answered questions concerning (1) educator attitudes about the relationship between the discipline of speech communication and peace issues; (2) the inclusion of peace issues in collegiate programs and curricula; and (3) research priorities for examining peace issues from a communication perspective. The results indicated a significant range from zero peace communication curricular activity to full-fledged interdisciplinary majors. While most speech communication educators responding to the survey perceived a logical relationship between peace communication and their discipline, very few were actually teaching peace communication theory, history, or strategies. Those who are "teaching peace" are typically doing so within the scope of upper level courses in interpersonal and small group communication. There seems to be a perception that such instruction is inappropriate for or of little interest to the general student population. Although there is increasing activity in the broad area of peace studies in the university setting, for the most part that activity is under the leadership of some department or program other than speech communication. (Six references are attached.) (ARH)

Tucker, A. (1992). Chairing the Academic Department: Leadership among peers (3rd ed.). New York, American Council on Education/Macmillan.
A text for persons seeking more information about the roles and responsibilities typically assigned to department chairs. Of particular relevance are the chapters on students and managing conflict

Tucker, A. (1992). Managing Conflict. Chairing the Academic Department: Leadership among peers (3rd ed.). A. Tucker. New York, American Council on Education/Macmillan.

Tucker, A. (1992). Legal Implications of Being a Chair. Chairing the Academic Department: Leadership among peers (3rd ed.). A. Tucker. New York, American Council on Education/Macmillan.

Twale, D. J. (1991). "Southeast State University: A Simulation for Higher Education Administration Courses." Simulation & Gaming 22(4): 490-97.
Describes a prototype university, Southeast State University, which was created for a simulation game that uses an in-basket format to mix reality with role playing and case study to teach decision making, problem solving, and conflict resolution in higher education administration courses. (four references) (LRW)

University, Syracuse (1990). Program Booklet for The Fourth Nat'l Conference on Campus Violence. The Fourth National Conference On Campus Violence, Towson, Maryland, The American College Personnel Assoc. Comm. I Task Force On Victimization and Violence On Campus/and/ The National Assoc. of Student Personnel Administrators/and/ Towson State University.

Unknown (1989). "Employment Disputes Within Universities." Civil Justice Quarterly 8(April): 152-167.