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Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors O-R)

O'Connell, J. and A. Curle (1985). Peace with Work To Do: The Academic Study of Peace.
This document contains two lectures concerning the nature and status of peace studies. Adam Curle, in "The Scope and Dilemmas of Peace Studies" presents: (1) the study of peace and related subjects; (2) diversities and contradictions in peace studies; (3) personal interpretations; (4) teaching peace studies; and (5) moral and practical dilemmas. He urges people to recognize mankind's common traits and to eliminate or diminish those issues that are divisive. In "Towards an Understanding of Concepts in the Study of Peace," James O'Connell examines the linkage of concepts concerning peace, justice, and freedom and considers coexistence in the contemporary world in terms of the community of nations, technology, and arms control. Ideas and attitudes about the nature and extent of peace studies in academic environments are explored, and peace is identified as a subject that civilization cannot afford to ignore. (JHP)

O'Connor, K. L. (1994). The Effects of Peer Mediation Training on Third Party Facilitated Conflict Resolution. Meeting of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, ERIC Documents ED380745.
Mediation training should produce highly successful mediators who are capable of carrying out smooth and effective mediation. This study assessed subjects' perceptions of the effectiveness of mediation by comparing trained team mediators to untrained team mediators. Subjects (N0) evaluated videotaped mediation vignettes showing both the trained and untrained team confronted with the same conflict by the same disputants. It was hypothesized that mediation effectiveness would be higher for trained mediators than for untrained third party participants. Results showed that trained mediators were rated as significantly more effective in establishing trust with the disputants, in directing neutral questions at disputants, and in establishing and enforcing rules during the mediation session. Counter to the hypothesis, untrained mediators were rated significantly higher on items assessing mediators' sensitivity to diversity, on mediators' helpfulness towards disputants, and on positive emotional change in disputants. These perceptions of the untrained mediators may have been due to the fact that trained mediators are taught to act as neutral third parties and are thus discouraged in helping directly. Untrained mediators may be more inclined to provide advice, direction, and answers for the disputants, thus creating the appearance of being more helpful.

O'Rourke, T. G. (1997). Graduate and Continuing Education for Community College Leaders. ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, Los Angeles, CA.
Between 1960 and 1975, demands for competent two-year college administrators led many universities to develop specialized leadership programs or to incorporate leadership development curricula into existing programs. The skills needed to maintain and improve a system, however, are not necessarily the same as those that were required to establish it. Moreover, changes in the community college student body, technological expansion, and new demands from the labor force are changing the role of community college leaders. Graduate and continuing education programs for college leaders, therefore, should adjust their aims in order to respond to the changing environment. In these programs it is the faculty who are responsible for shaping and training new leaders. These faculty should consider incorporating the following principles into their graduate programs: understanding organizations as cultures, recognizing the importance of multiculturalism, embracing democratic practices, understanding the difference between compliance and empowerment, and creating opportunities for underrepresented graduate students. Efforts to strengthen the writing and analytic abilities of future administrators are also essential. Finally, in addition to these university- based programs, professional associations have taken on the role of continuing education for college leaders, providing programs that seek to strengthen interpersonal and technical competencies and focus on such current issues as administrative ethics, sexual harassment, collective bargaining, and conflict resolution. (HAA)

Orze, J. J. (1978). Conflict Resolution in Academe: Prevent or Settle Early Special Report No 34, Academic Collective Bargaining Information Service Washington D.C.: 16.
The grievance procedure in higher education and the problem of conflict resolution are approached from a multi-dimensional standpoint. Collective bargaining is presented as both an exacerbator of the litigious nature of college and university relations and as a formal vehicle for conflict resolution within academe. The need for extra-contractual mechanisms, both formal and informal, is discussed as essential to providing for the right of individuals to due process as well as for developing a climate of trust and respect within the collegiate community. The stated theme of the paper is to prevent or avoid grievances, and, if they do arise, to settle them early at the lowest hearing level at which the hearing officer has the authority to do so. Avoidance stresses two key elements: good contract language and effective contract administration. The example of clear, concise contract language used was the definition of a grievance. A modification of the language, while retaining the clarity and precision of the original definition, suggests a proposed major change in collegiate labor relations that would provide management with access to the contractual grievance procedure. The bi-partisan responsibility for effective contract implementation is discussed, and means for achieving the same are suggested. A two-one-one model for collegiate grievance procedures is proposed. The need for educating-training hearing officers to be effective in their roles is stressed, and various classes of potential grievances are presented. (Author/SW)

Ostar, A. W. (1995). "Institutional Conflict." New Directions for Higher Education 92(Winter): 59-62.
One way universities have served society since the Middle Ages is by providing an environment giving students and faculty freedom to explore new ideas without fear of retribution. Properly used, conflict can be the catalyst for advancing wisdom. However, the university is at risk when rational discourse is replaced by conflict as the means of resolving campus issues. (MSE)

Ostar, A. W. (1995). Institutional Conflict. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass: 59-62.

Otto, A. L. (1998). Resolving Workplace Disputes: the Role of Organizational Culture in Organizational Conflict (Conflict Resolution). Psychology, University of Minnesota; 0130: 154.
In the present study university employees from 25 different departments completed a questionnaire assessment of their organizational culture. A subset of 15 departments also answered questions about their experiences and decision making in different types of conflict situations. Principal components analysis of the organizational culture variables resulted in eight culture components: quality of communication, presence of problem solving systems, consideration of interests, productivity, quality of relationships, rationality, cooperation, and directness of style. These components differentiated among departments. It was also found that departments which identified themselves as having problems with conflict management had lower quality of communication, were emotional rather than rational in their decision making, and were more likely to take a direct, or confrontational approach to solving conflict than those departments which were chosen at random. Organizational culture was related to respondents' conflict experiences. The effectiveness of informal conflict resolution techniques was the best predictor of whether or not a conflict had been resolved. Culture variables such as the quality of communication, quality of relationships, and rationality influenced the effectiveness of the informal techniques. The presence of formal systems for problem solving also influenced the effectiveness of the informal techniques.

Palola, E. G. and A. P. Bradley, Jr. (1976). Multiple Perspectives Evaluation: A Strategy for Dealing with Conflict Pressures: 13.
Described is the Empire State Office of Research and Evaluation multiple perspective strategy for evaluation of academic programs. The uncommon Studio Arts Program in New York City is used as a model. This program is politically as well as educationally important to the institution, which introduces internal and external pressures on the research. These are discussed along with the design, which included a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods and the policy decision outcomes of the evaluation. (Author)

Paltridge, J. G. (1968). Conflict and coordination in higher education; the Wisconsin experience. Berkeley,, Center for Research and Development in Higher Education University of California.

Pelesh, M. L. (1994). "Regulations Under the Higher Education Amendments of 1992: A case study in negotiated rulemaking." Law and Contemporary Problems 57(Autumn): 151-70.

Pernal, M. (1997). "A Collaborative Approach to Grievance-Arbitration Resolution at Higher Education Institutions." CUPA Journal 47(3-4): 27-29.
Describes the grievance-arbitration process for collective bargaining used in the Connecticut State University System, consisting of a grievance-arbitration panel of administration and faculty representatives. The process, the final step before professional arbitration, is used for faculty. However, it could be adopted for bargaining units representing other professionals and could also be used in a multicampus or single-institution situation. (MSE)

Persico, S. T. (1990). Dispute resolution in higher education: the use of ombudsmanship, mediation, and arbitration in the settlement of faculty grievances.

Peterson, V. (1989). Conflict Resolution in Higher Education: Video Teleconference. Morgantown, West Virginia, West Virginia University.

Picard, C. and R. Ramkay (1994). Annual Report: The Mediation Centre at Carleton University, Carleton University Mediation Centre.

Picozzi, J. M. (1987). "University Disciplinary Process: What's fair, what's due, and what you don't get." Yale Law Journal 96(July): 2132.

Pilon, D. (1991). "Emerging Needs for Consultants in Higher Education." New Directions for Higher Education(73): 3-13.

Price, D. M. and P. W. Whalley (1996). "The University Visitor and University Governance." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 18(1): 45-57.
The role of the University Visitor, whose traditional function is to mediate conflict within a university and contribute to its governance, is examined in the context of Australian higher education. Medieval English ecclesiastical origins of the office are described, and calls for abolition are examined. It is argued that the office should be preserved, but also clarified and redefined.

Rafky, D. M. (1973). Ambiguities in Race Relations: Blacks and Whites in Higher Education.
Patterns of joking, formality, and avoidance were found to be functionally important in allowing black and white professors in predominantly white, non-Southern universities and colleges to deal with intergroup problems of prejudice and status dilemma. (EH)

Rajagopal, I. and W. D. Farr (1993). Mediative Roles for Management: Collective Bargaining with Part-Time Faculty.
A discussion of collective bargaining for part-time college faculty looks at research conducted in Canada and the United States and uses the case of York University (Canada) to examine the politics of collective bargaining and the mediative roles assumed by management in three specific conflict areas of part-time employment policy. (MSE)

Ralph, E. G. (1991). Supervising the Extended Practicum: A Contextual Approach Monograph No 4, Saskatchewan Univ. Saskatoon. Coll. of Education.: 15.
Conflicts or disagreements between student teachers and university supervisors in the Extended Practicum program, College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, are often attributed to factors such as "personality clash," laziness, stubbornness, authoritarianism, prejudice, stereotyping, dogmatism, or malice. In reality, many of these problems result from improper understanding or ineffective supervision of student teaching. One way to enhance supervision is to use a Contextual Supervisory (CS) approach. CS is a developmental process by which supervisors adjust their leadership approaches to match the demands of the specific situation. These contextual demands include such variables as the development level of the student teacher as well as the goals of the practicum program and the various conditions and constraints of the specific case. CS is founded on the principle that the Extended Practicum supervisor should match one of four general supervisory styles (directing, coaching, supporting, or delegating) with one of four basic developmental levels of student teachers for particular skills or tasks being practiced. This report applies the CS approach to a particular case study and demonstrates its usefulness as a conceptual tool for bridging the theory-practice gap. (LL)

Randall, K. and E. Globetti (1992). "Desired Competencies of the Chief Student Affairs Officer as Perceived by College Presidents." College Student Affairs Journal 11(3): 54-61.
Examined desired competencies of chief student affairs officer as perceived by college presidents (n=149) at four-year institutions. The findings revealed that institutional presidents perceived that personal and interpersonal skills were competencies most desired in chief student affairs officer. Respondents ranked integrity as top competency, followed by commitment to institutional mission, conflict resolution skills, decisiveness, and motivation. (Author/NB)

Rands, M. Compatibility, Conflict, and Emotional Involvement in College Freshwomen Roommates.
College students who live on campus are often assigned a roommate whom they do not know and are expected to live with that person in intimate quarters. This study was conducted to examine the process of relationship development in 13 pairs of college freshwomen roommates. For 8 weeks each semester of their freshman year, roommates independently completed a weekly questionnaire on the two most important events that occurred between them and their roommate. Toward the end of each semester, they also completed measures of conflict, conflict resolution, and emotional involvement with their roommate. A follow-up interview was conducted during subjects' second year of college. The results revealed that conflicts were most frequently reported regarding room cleanliness, study hours, and how often the other asked for a favor. Emotional involvement was high for both semesters, but it decreased second semester, especially in perceptions of the other's disclosure and in one's own caring. By second semester, compatible roommates were more likely to report high emotional involvement than were less compatible roommates. Comflict also increased across semesters in number of conflicts, frequency, and importance. By second semester, compatible roommates were less likely to experience conflict. Living together the second year was predicted by compatibility, whereas emotional involvement and conflict predicted type of future interaction. (NB)

Raskoff, S. (1997). "Group Dynamics in Service-Learning: Guiding Student Relations." Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning (v4 p109-15 Fall 1997).
Reports on a community service learning project in which 11 college students participated in conflict-resolution activities in a middle school. The students' reactions to the experience varied according to their different motivations for participating. Training and close supervision, partially accomplished through meetings and reading weekly journals, is paramount for negotiating conflicts, addressing problems, and enhancing the overall experience. (Author/MSE)

Reed, R. P. D. (1997). Strategies for dealing with troublesome behaviors in the classroom, NTLF. 1998.

Reichman, M. (1980). "Resolving Campus-Community Conflicts." New Directions for Institutional Advancement ((Effective Community Relations) n10 p79-92 1980).
In the early 1970s neighborhood movements developed around the concept of community integrity. As institutions expanded, neighbors began to fight encroachment on their way of life. Three case studies involving disputes between expanding urban universities and their neighborhoods reveal similarities in the development and resolution of campus-community problems. (Author/MLW)

Reisser, L. Working Together: Coping with College Politics.
Suggestions are made for creating healthy working relationships within a college administration and for improving the administrator's ability to cope with college politics. After introductory material examining the difficulty some educators, especially women, experience in utilizing power and politics to achieve desired goals, the report discusses five assumptions concerning the college workplace: (1) work relationships consist of implicit or explicit contracts; (2) conflicts arise due to the needs and feelings of co-workers; (3) administrative work involves the use of power; (4) power in colleges is distributed among groups and individuals; and (5) political maneuvering is an ongoing phenomenon caused by the scarcity of resources. The report then examines several conflict situations which detract from the administrator's power, competence, and credibility. These conflicts involve personality disputes; gossip; stress related to changes in staff, resources, priorities, or procedures; alliances or cliques; and impasses caused by inattention to identified problems. Conditions for healthy working relationships are then outlined, including the clear definition of roles and objectives, good communications, and respect for professional ethics. The report concludes with a description of problem-solving techniques to be used in resolving conflicts. (JP)

Rhoades, G. (1982). The Implementation of Conflicting Interests in Higher Education. Comparative Higher Education Research Group Working Paper Number 3, California Univ., Los Angeles. Graduate School of Education.
A comparative analysis of the process by which conflicting interests are implemented in the higher education systems of the United States, England, Sweden, and France is presented. Attention is also directed to differentiation in these systems, and to the systems' receptiveness to such differentiation (i.e., splitting up existing functions, or adopting new, distinct roles for higher education). Although focus was on the varied roles of the state with respect to differentiation, consideration was given to the power relations of groups and the ways in which particular systems promoted the access of certain groups to the policy-making process. Implementation of the sometimes conflicting interests of social justice, competence, academic freedom, autonomy, or accountability is basically a matter of relations between the higher education system and society. The key to the flexibility of the system, to its receptiveness to differentiation, appears to be the balance of the relationship (or the power differential) between the academic profession and the laity. In addition, the commitment of the academic profession to challenging interest interpretations and emphases introduced from outside the higher education system is important. The contrasting cases of Sweden and France reveal that state intervention is sometimes necessary to ensure the responsiveness of higher education to market demands. A strong legislative branch in government seems to be especially conducive to the openness of the system to access by lay groups, particularly in the policy-making realm. (SW)

Richardson, J. P. and A. Hsi (1997). "Mediation and alternative dispute resolution in transdisciplinary education." Service Bridges 3(1).

Richardson, S. M., Ed. (1999). Promoting Civility: A Teaching Challenge. New Directions in Teaching and Learning. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Riddle, R. and et al. (1988). The Anatomy of Conflict. Topic #1 in a Series of International Security and Conflict Curricula for Grades 7-12 and Community College, Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.
This four-day unit is designed for use in social studies and/or literature classes at secondary (7-12) and community college levels as a general introduction to conflict on personal, group, and world levels. The unit introduces students to and familiarizes them with the characteristics and mechanisms of conflicts at all levels and with basic conflict resolution/management alternatives. Students define conflict, divide it into separate elements, and apply these elements to conflict analysis on all levels. As a result students understand conflicts as phenomena with causes, consequences and different possible outcomes, and not as isolated events that should necessarily be either avoided or sought. Students also discuss controversial issues such as the morality of conflict and whether a link exists between personal and international conflict behavior and its resolution. The overall purpose of these activities is to develop students' analytic and critical skills regarding conflict. Five appendices appear at the end of the unit: (1) Related Activities; (2) Connections to Textbooks; (3) Connections to California's History/Social Science Framework and Model Curriculum Standards; (4) Bibliography; and (5) Educational Philosophy. (DB)

Rifkin, J. (1991). "Overview of Dispute Resolution in Educational Insititutions." NIDR Forum(Spring): 1-4.

Rifkind, L. and L. F. Harper (1997). "Internal Mediation Services: Conflict Management in a Multicultural Higher Education Environment." CUPA Journal 47(3-4): 9-11.
Discussion of intercultural conflicts among college and university faculty and staff looks at the role of internal mediation services, focusing on steps that should be followed by the mediator, mediator attributes contributing to successful resolution, and the importance of mediators and human resource professionals developing an awareness of intercultural differences that are often the root cause of conflict. (Author/MSE)

Rifkind, L. and L. F. Harper (1997). "Internal Mediation Services: Conflict Management in a Multicultural Higher Education Environment." CUPA Journal 47(3-4): 9-11.
Discussion of intercultural conflicts among college and university faculty and staff looks at the role of internal mediation services, focusing on steps that should be followed by the mediator, mediator attributes contributing to successful resolution, and the importance of mediators and human resource professionals developing an awareness of intercultural differences that are often the root cause of conflict.

Riggs, R. O. and P. H. Murrell (1993). Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: From Conflict to Community. Washington, DC, The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Resources.

Riskin, L. (1984). "Mediation in the Law Schools." Journal of Legal Education 34(2): 259-267.
Mediation, as distinguished from arbitration or negotiation, is likely to emerge in a law school's curriculum only if a faculty member wishes to teach it, but a trend toward inclusion is growing and leadership is being provided by individuals, professional organizations, institutions, and research groups.

Riskin, L. L. (1993). Integrating Dispute Processing into First-Year Law School Courses: A Videotape Series and Evaluation Final Report, Missouri Univ. Columbia. School of Law.: 65.
This report describes a program to produce four videotapes to be used to enhance previously produced materials that integrated teaching about alternative dispute processes into standard first-year law school courses at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UM-C). Another objective of this project was a comparative evaluation of the previously produced materials. The videotape project involved four tapes, each with accompanying instructor's manual and simulation materials, which illustrate dispute resolution processes (interviewing, counseling, negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and mixed processes) using fact problems relevant to introductory courses on contracts, property, torts, criminal law, and civil procedure. About 400 tapes have been sold to more than 100 law schools. The comparative evaluation of the earlier curriculum project concluded that the project had met its goals, as measured by a series of survey responses from students at UM-C compared with those of law students at Indiana University (Bloomington), where no dispute resolution instruction is offered the first year, and with law students at Willamette University (Oregon), where a single course on dispute resolution is offered in the first year. Appended are the evaluation report by Ronald M. Pipkin entitled, "Project on Integrating Dispute Resolution into Standard First-Year Courses: An Evaluation, February 1993," and letters and reviews that evaluate the videotapes. (SW)

Riskin, L. L. and J. E. Westbrook (1989). "Integrating Dispute Resolution into Standard First-Year Courses: The Missouri Plan." Journal of Legal Education 39(4): 509-21.
The University of Missouri-Columbia Law School has implemented a first-year course in dispute resolution integrating topics in torts, property, civil procedure, contracts, and criminal law and taught by teachers in all of those areas. (MSE)

Risser, P. (1996). "Confronting Value Conflicts." New Directions for Higher Education 93(Spring): 33-40.
The new president of Miami University (Ohio) recounts the controversy he encountered over the name of the university's athletic teams, considered racist and insensitive by some, and his approach to the issue. Public discussion of the volatile issue, led by the president, took a large amount of time but was felt to be worthwhile. (MSE)

Robert, B. R. (1983). Investigating the Feasibility of Community Boards on a College Campus, St. Olaf College Department of Psychology.

Rodgers, R. F. (1983). Using Theory in Practice. Administration and Leadership in Student Affairs. T. K. Miller, R. B. Winston and W. R. Mendenhall. Muncie, Indiana, Accelerated Development Inc.: 111-144.
This article explores a general approach to using theory in student affairs practice. After discussing some theories of student development, a case study concerning roommate conflicts in a university residence is used to explore how a developmental response to conflict could be employed by RAs.

Ross, W. H., D. Fischer, et al. (1997). "University Residence Hall Assistants as Mediators: an investigation of the effects of disputant and mediator relationships on intervention preferences." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 27(8): 664-677.

Rowe, M. (1990). "People Who Feel Harrassed Need a Complaint System With Both Formal and Informal Options." Negotiation Journal(April): 161-171.

Rowe, M. (1994). Harassment: A Systems Approach, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Rowe, M. (1995). "Options, functions and skills: What an organizational ombudsperson might want to know." Negotiation journal 11(April): 2-16.

Rowe, M. (1997). An Effective, Integrated Complaint Resolution System. Sexual Harassment on Campus. B. R. Sandler and R. J. Shoop. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.

Rowe, M. P. (1991). "The Ombudsman Role in a Dispute Resolution System." Negotiation Journal Oct: 353-362.

Rowe, M. P. and J. T. Ziegenfuss (1993). "Perspectives on costs and cost effectiveness of ombudsman programs in four fields." International Journal of Health and Human Resourecs Admin. Winter: 281-312.

Rule, C. (1993). Planning and Design of a Student-Centered Collegiate Conflict Management System. Amherst, MA, National Association for Mediation in Education.

Rule, C. (1994). "Collegiate Mediation Programs: A Critical Review." The Fourth R 50(April/May): 36-37.

Russel, C. (1988). "Alternative Dispute Resolution in the University Community: the power and presence of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP)." Journal on Dispute Resolution 3(2): 437-454.

Ryor, A. (1978). "Who Killed Collegiality." Change 11(June/July).
argues that the era of collegiality was being replaced by one of liability