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Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors K-N)

Kaplin, W. A. (1985). "Law on the Campus 1960-1985: Years of Growth and Challenge." Journal of College and University Law 12(3): 269-99.
A review of the relationship of law and academe covers the legal implications of social and educational change, the dichotomy between public and private and between secular and religious institutions, and preventive legal planning. (MSE)

Karlson, K. (1991). "From a Predominantly White Campus to a Culturally Diverse Campus: Implications for Mediation." The Fourth R 33(June/July).

Katz, N. (1995). "What's In a Name?: Capturing the Essence of Campus Mediation." The Fourth R 55(Feb/March): 7, 15, 26.

Katz, N. H. (1984). Report on Graduate and Undergraduate Programs in Conflict Resolution, National Institute for Dispute Resolution.

Keating, W. T. and J. A. Holden (1972). "The Campus Ombudsman: A vehicle for change?" Journal of Research and Development in Education 6(1): 38-45.

Kegelman, T., Ed. (1985). Mediation in the Academy: A workbook for student affairs administrators. Amherst, MA, The Mediation Project.

Kelleher, C. G. (1994). "Today's "High Stakes" Employment Discrimination Suits: Using Training to Prevent Financial Disaster." CUPA Journal 45(4): 25-28.
Either losing or winning an employment discrimination case can be financially devastating to a college or university. A prevention plan includes: changing the attitudes of individuals throughout the institution; reviewing policies and practices; fostering better communication; encouraging cooperation between administrators and human resource personnel; and considering implementation of an alternative dispute resolution process. (MSE)

Kimsey, W. D., R. M. Fuller, et al. (1994). "The Impact of Mediator Strategic Choices: An Experimental Study." Mediation Quarterly 12(1): 89-97.

Klare, M. T. (1990). Guide to careers, internships and graduate education in peace studies. Amherst, Five college program in peace and world security studies (PAWSS).

Klomparens, K. L. and J. P. Beck (1997). Setting expectations and resolving conflicts between grad. students and faculty: A proactive approach. E. Lansing, MSU.

Knechel, S., E. Moore, et al. (1984). "A Mediation Workshop for Residential Staff." Journal of College Student Personnel Association(January): 86-88.

Koch, G. Conflict and Change: An Experimental Course Starting Over.
This descriptive report examines the efforts of a faculty team at the University of Minnesota's General College to revise an interdisciplinary general education course on conflict and change so that it would meet the unique educational needs of adult, non-traditional students. The report first describes a proposed course delivery format designed to accommodate the schedules of adult working students. This two-quarter format includes early morning hours of instruction on educational television, one late afternoon/early evening session of two and one-half hours each week on campus, and six day-long Saturday workshops. The report then examines the main focus of the course, i.e., the idea of conflict as a catalyst for growth and productivity, and describes the use of metaphor recognition and inductive learning in helping non-traditional students assimilate course material. Factors to be considered in enhancing faculty rapport with non-traditional students are then examined, followed by a discussion of the need to create course objectives which stress the improvement of student self- esteem rather than traditional cognitive skill development. The report concludes with an outline of tentative course evaluation plans, including evaluations of student learning and self-esteem improvement and of faculty performance and course materials. (JP)

Krajeweski, G. (1995). "Graduate Progams in Dispute Resolution in the United States and Canada." The Fourth R 55(February/March): 13.

Krajewski, G. (1998). Conflict Management Programs for Administrators. Mending the Cracks in the Ivory Tower. S. Holton. Bolton, MA, Anker Publishing Co.: 239-252.

Krislov, J. (1997). "Disclosure problems of the academic labor arbitrator." Dispute resolution journal(Fall): 54-59.
Issues of ethics and disclosure are always of concern to an arbitrator to a labor-management dispute, particularly when the arbitrator is a university professor. In their work, these individuals often develop close working relationships with students and other labor-management personnel, leading to possible disclosure problems in future arbitral proceedings involving such people. The author, an arbitrator and a university professor, cites various examples of these conflicts, discussing commonly held views on each and presenting recommendations on how to avoid disclosure problems.

Kurland, J. (1980). "Mediating the Implementation of AAUP Standards." New Directions for Higher Education 8(4): 9-17.
The American Association of University Professors, the leading agency in higher education in developing the principles and standards governing the relationships of academic life, has also assumed responsibility for implementing these principles and standards in specific situations. The Association turns to formal investigation and censure only if mediation fails.

Kurland, J. E. (1980). "Mediating the Implementation of AAUP Standards."
The American Association of University Professors, the leading agency in higher education in developing the principles and standards governing the relationships of academic life, has also assumed responsibility for implementing these principles and standards in specific situations. The Association turns to formal investigation and censure only if mediation fails. (MLW)

Lach, I. J. (1972). A Study of Divisional Differences in a Community College Organization.
This study attempted to investigate the organizational differences which develop between various divisions of a community college as a result of specialization. The Lawrence and Lorach concepts of differentiation and integration were utilized in the analysis. The results obtained supported the conclusion that considerable differences existed between the administrative services divisions and the student personnel and instructional divisions on measures of formality of structure, interpersonal orientation, and goal orientation. The findings also confirmed that the divisions which have greater differences have more difficulty in working effectively with each other. (Author)

Lancaster, R. B. (1970). Conflict in Interinstitutional Cooperation. Chicago, Loyola Univ. Chicago Ill.: 8.
In the past 15 years, there has been a great upsurge in interinstitutional cooperation, a momentum which will probably increase in the next 15 years. In order to find answers to some basic questions affecting consortia, the Midwest Association for Higher Education (MAHE)-a pseudonym-was studied. This paper deals primarily with the question: what conflicts arise as interdependency increases and how are these conflicts managed in such a way as to preserve the interinstitutional character of the consortium? Conflict in MAHE was directly primarily toward the central office, and to some extent toward other colleges in the cooperative. The specific conflicts seemed to center around four central problem areas: (1) the role and scope of the central office; (2) the distribution of limited resources; (3) the heterogeneity of member institutions attempting to seek common goals; and (4) administrative procedures and management as the consortium developed. The four mechanisms used for resolving conflict between the colleges and the central office were: (1) a clear division of labor; (2) a system of checks and balances; (3) formation of coalitions; and (4) a philosophical ethos of voluntarism. Since conflict will inevitably arise in any kind of cooperative effort, it is vital to learn to deal with it constructively. (AF)

Lande, J. and W. C. Warters (1997). Procedures for handling complaints of student and faculty misconduct: A report for the Shepard Broad Law Center at Nova Southeastern University. Ft. Lauderdale, Nova Southeastern Univ.

Langeler, G. H. (1984). Mediation at Oberlin. Annual Meeting of American College Personnel Association, Baltimore.

Last, D. Conflict resolution training opportunities in Canada,

Leal, R. (1995). From Collegiality to Confrontation: Faculty-to-Faculty Conflicts. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 19-25.

Leal, R. (1995). "To be or not to be: Conflict resolution as a discipline." Fourth R 55(Feb/Mar 1995).

Leap, T. L. (1995). Tenure, Discrimination, and the Courts. Second Edition.
This book examines issues related to faculty tenure, discrimination, and court litigation at American colleges and universities. It also analyzes legal cases, court rulings, personnel practices, and specific types of discrimination germane to reappointment, promotion, or denial of tenure in higher education. Individual chapters concentrate on the potential effects of discrimination legislation; employment discrimination and relevant legislation; the reappointment, promotion, and tenure process; judicial intervention in promotion and tenure disputes; criteria for making promotion and tenure decisions; the burden of proof in college and university discrimination cases; the confidentiality of the peer review process; remedies for employment discrimination in academia; and preventing employment suits. An appendix provides an overview of selected cases. (MDM)

Leatherman, C. (1999). Report Laments Rise of 'Collegiality' as a Factor in Tenure Reviews. Chronicle of Higher Education.

Leatherman, C. and D. K. Magner (1996). "Faculty and Graduate-Student Strife Over Job Issues Flares on Many Campuses." Chronicle of Higher Education 43(14): A12-A14.
Conflicts in many states between administrators and disgruntled college employees have led to a surge of labor activism in academe, including strikes and protests, votes to unionize, disputes over evaluation and compensation, and court litigation. Conflicts involve teaching assistants, adjunct faculty, and tenured faculty alike. (MSE)

Ledbetter, C. J. and J. Miller (1987). "Liberal Arts Faculty as Mediators." Arkansas Political Science Journal 7(1).

Lederman, D. (1987). "Portland State U Embroiled in a Bitter Dispute over Proposal to Upgrade Its Sports Programs." Chronicle of Higher Education 34(16): A28-30.
A plan to increase institutional revenues through intercollegiate athletics is strongly backed by a committee of campus and community leaders but opposed by many students and faculty as misguided. (MSE)

Leonard, W. P. (1983). A Review of Selected Arbitration, Promotion, Retention and Tenure Decisions.
The use of arbitration to resolve faculty appointment, retention, promotion, and tenure disputes is addressed, based on a review of specific university arbitration decisions. The arbitration literature reveals that faculty employment status decisions are made almost exclusively with reference to academic judgment. Attributes that are frequently examined include level and appropriateness of academic preparation, professional experience, evidence of research and scholarship, teaching competence, professional demeanor, and service to institution and community. Additionally, program needs and fiscal constraints have been considered in personnel decisions. Some collective bargaining agreements foreclose external arbitration in matters involving academic judgment, while some contracts contain clauses exempting decisions based upon academic judgment from arbital judgment. However, procedural grievances have been employed as a means of attacking the underlying academic judgment issues. It is concluded that the concern over the intrusion of an outside influence into the domain of academic judgment does not appear to be supportable and that arbitration has encouraged all parties to be aware of the procedural steps specified in the contract. (SW)

Leslie, D. W. (1972). "Conflict Management in the Academy: An Exploration of the Issues." Journal of Higher Education 43(9): 702-719.

Leslie, D. W. (1974). The Impact of Collective Bargaining on the Management of Faculty-Institution Conflict in Colleges and Universities Final Report to the National Institute of Education, Virginia Univ. Charlottesville. Center for Higher Education.: 111.
The goal of this study was to describe and assess the impact of collective bargaining on the management of conflict in higher education. Bargaining and nonbargaining institutions were matched and their grievance processes compared on a number of dimensions. It was concluded that although collective bargaining has had a distinct effect on the way conflict is managed in colleges and universities, a number of other variables have had an effect as well. These include control patterns, organizational patterns, region of the country, and level of educational offering. (Author)

Leslie, D. W. (1975). Conflict and Collective Bargaining ERIC/Higher Education, George Washington Univ. Washington D.C. ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education.: 79.
This study compares the manner in which employment relations problems are resolved at institutions with collective bargaining contracts and those without such contracts. It also describes how collectively bargained agreements in general have resulted in the development of more formal conflict- resolution mechanisms in all sectors of higher education. An analysis and descriptive summary of grievance procedures at contract and noncontract institutions is provided. It is concluded that the reliance on formal authority is greater and grievance procedures more frequent in collective bargaining situations than in nonbargaining situations; however the trend is for the broader rules of public labor relations to move through all sectors of the higher education community. The need is underscored for continuing study of different approaches to managing employment relations conflicts. Both contracting and noncontracting institutions are urged to keep thorough records of all bargaining efforts so that longitudinal studies can be performed to provide a basis for a completely systematic analysis that is not possible at the present time. (Author)

Leslie, D. W. (1975). Impact of Collective Bargaining on Conflict Resolution Practices Research Summary No 2, Academic Collective Bargaining Information Service Washington D.C.: 6.
This document summarizes some of the major findings and basic conclusions of a study conducted during the 1973-75 period, the goal of which was to assess the impact of collective bargaining on conflict resolution practices in higher education. The population of institutions operating under collectively negotiated contracts with faculty in September 1973 was matched with a corresponding sample of colleges (for size, level of degree offering, type of control and region of the country) not then operating under negotiated contracts. Both groups were subsequently surveyed to establish: (1) the nature of formal mechanisms used for resolving faculty conflict; and (2) the extent to which these procedures had been used. The most general conclusion reached is that more universalistic and secular principles of conflict resolution are replacing the older more informal norms based on the traditions and values of a shared concept of academic life. Greater and greater emphasis on procedural protection appears in general to be supplanting the mechanisms on consensus, trust, and shared authority as the accepted mode of dispute resolution. (Author/KE)

Levine, A. (1999). A New Generation of Student Protesters Arises. Chronicle of Higher Education: A52.

Levine, N. Z. (1997). "Challenges of Sexual Harassment Mediation on Campus." The Fourth R 79(Aug/Sept): 19-21.

Levitz, C. M. (1990). "Nonadversarial conflict resolution simulation in a school setting." Social Education 54: 263-266.

Lewicki, R., M. Bazerman, et al. (1991). "Three Perspectives on Dispute Resolution in Higher Education." NIDR Forum(Spring): 12-15.

Lewicki, R., C. McEwen, et al. (1986). "Dispute Resolution in Higher Education: Three Viewpoints." Dispute Resolution Forum (NIDR)(April): 6-11.

Lewis, L. S. and P. G. Altbach (1995). Faculty versus admin.: A universal problem, International higher education. 1996.

Likert, R. and J. G. Likert (1976). New Ways of Managing Conflict. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Likert, R. and J. G. Likert (1976). System 4 Structure Applied to Conflicts in Universities. New Ways of Managing Conflict. R. Likert and J. G. Likert. New York, McGraw Hill: 243-259.

Loewenberg, P. (1972). "Love and Hate in the Academy." The Center Magazine(September/October): 4-11.

London, D. (1991). Top Problems in College Towns: Parking and Housing. Chronicle of Higher Education: A21.

Lovejoy, C. (1995). "Predicting Fall Semester Breakups in College Roommates: A Replication Using the Social Satisfaction Questionaire." Journal of College Student Development 36(6 (Nov-Dec)): 594-602.
Undergraduates living in residence halls (n=578) completed the Social Satisfaction Questionaire (SSQ). SSQ scores predicted subsquent roommate breakups resulting from interpersonal conflict. The prediction of breakup provided by SSQ scores was superior to that for demographic variables, other indices of the relationship quality, and general college satisfaction.

Lucas, A. (1994). Managing Conflict. Strengthening Departmental Leadership: A team-building guide for chairs in colleges and universities. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass: 201-218.

Lucas, A. F. (1994). Strengthening Departmental Leadership: A Team-Building Guide for Chairs in Colleges and Universities The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series: 295.
This book demonstrates how academic chairs at institutions of higher education can learn the skills that are essential to their becoming leaders and faculty developers and having a significant impact on their departments. The book assists chairs in building cohesive teams in their departments and facilitates learning and using survival skills. It is designed to be highly practical, presenting sensible advice on handling problems that occur frequently in college and university departments. The book provides a goal-setting framework and action steps that result in leadership knowledge and skills. Specific chapters address: (1) opportunities departmental chairs have to handle specific challenges confronting higher education, and barriers that prevent chairs from becoming leaders and team builders; (2) a leadership matrix which measures nine major leadership and faculty development responsibilities and assesses strengths and target areas for development; (3) step-by-step method for developing a vision that will elicit the commitment of the department; (4) motivating, evaluating, and rewarding faculty members; (5) supporting effective teaching; (6) providing feedback on classroom teaching; (7) enhancing commitments to scholarship and service; (8) team building through supportive communication; (9) managing conflict and playing the role of third-party facilitator; (10) using feedback from the department; (11) the dean's role in developing departmental leadership; (12) stress reduction interventions; and (13) personal strategies for strengthening leadership effectiveness. Contains approximately 260 references. (JDD)

Lucas, C. J. (1996). Crisis in the Academy: Rethinking Higher Education in America. New York, St. Martins Press.

Ludeman, R. B. (1989). "The Formal Academic Grievance Process in Higher Education: A Survey of Current Practices." NASPA Journal 26(3): 235-240.

Lupton, D. K. (1984). "Resolving Faculty Disputes: The Education Ombudsman Proposal." Innovative Higher Education: 94-107.

Luthar, H. K. P. D. and J. P. D. Bonnici (1997). "Arbitration in higher education: Opportunities and challenges." J. Collective Negotiations 26(1st): 9-25.
The concept of academic judgment continues to enjoy privileged status in academe. It is eqully clear, however, that the legal environment within which univeristies and colleges operate has changed sufficiently in the last twenty or so years that it has become harder thatn ever to justify discriminatory or arbitrary promotion and tenure employment decisions on the basis of academic judgment. Academic judgment cannot grant perfect immunity and protect the university from the courts or the arbitrators under all circumstances. Arbitration has proven to be very useful in industry, and there is every indication it can provide a valuable service in academe as well. It is a voluntary process both parties control to a large extent. The arbitrator is selected with mustual agreement, and once the decision is rendered, the grievance can be considered resolved for all practical purposes, and both parties can devote their energies to other pursuits.

Luxenberg, S. (1980). "Settling Out of Court--The Center for Mediation in Higher Education." Change 12(5): 10-12.
At a time when universities are finding increasing difficulty in making ends meet, legal costs are seen as becoming a major problem. The Center for Mediation in Higher Education, an organization which espouses the use of third party neutrals to help adversaries negotiate, is described. (MLW)

Markwood, A. (1995). "A (Mediation) Partnership that Yields Dividends: College and Community." The Fourth R 60(Dec/Jan): 25.
Describes Mount Ida College program training university student mediators who then work with the Urban Community Mediators program in Dorchester MA

Marske, C. E. and S. Vago (1980). "Law and Dispute Processing in the Academic Community." Judicature 64(4): 165-75.
As the university becomes more of a bureaucracy than a community, changes occur in the law, power structures, and student faculty relationships, and members of the community are turning to the courts to resolve disputes they once settled informally. (Author/MSE)

May, W. W. E. (1990). Ethics and Higher Education American Council on Education/Macmillan Series on Higher Education: 398.
The purpose of this book is to provide a basic resource that defines the ethical issues in higher education and to offer a starting point for means of resolution or policy development in regard to them. Part 1 establishes an interpretive framework for the book in the following papers: "Institutional Culture and Ethics" (David Smith and Charles Reynolds); "Academic Principles of Responsibility" (Charles Reynolds and David Smith); "Through Thick and Thin: Two Ways of Talking about the Academy and Moral Responsibility" (James Laney). Part 2, focusing on activities and functions common to most institutions, contains "Academic Planning: Values and Decision Making" (Richard Morrill); "Admission Recruiting and Selection: Some Ethical Concerns" (Alice Cox); "Ethical Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics" (Lonnie Kliever); "Institutional Advancement: Survival with Integrity" (Harlan Stelmach and Mark Holman); "Ethical Issues in Faculty Evaluation" (George LaNoue). In part 3, a number of current and pressing issues are examined in the following papers: "Affirmative Action: Solution or Problem?" (Donna Shavlik); "Cheating and Plagiarism" (Richard Fass); "Legitimate Limits on Free Expression" (Deni Elliott); "Racism on Campus" (Mark Chesler and James Crowfoot); "The Challenge of Diversity" (J. Herman Blake and others); "The Guardians of Heloise? Sexual Harassment in Higher Education" (Mary Jo Small); "Student Social Concerns" (Margaret Barr); "Values and Ethics in the Graduate Education of Scientists" (Jules LaPidus and Barbara Mishkin); "Regulating Proprietary and Classified Research: Some Observations on Current University Policies" (Nicholas Steneck); "When Responsibilities Conflict: Stock Ownership and South Africa" (Raymond Bacchetti); "Ethics and Educational Assessment" (Marjorie Peace Lenn and D. Jeffrey Lenn); "Ethical Challenges of the College and University Presidency" (Daniel Perlman). References accompany each paper. (JDD)

McCabe, D. (1998). "Due Process Procedures in Faculty Grievance Codes." Journal of Business Ethics 17(15 Nov): 1653-1662.
An analysis is presented of what some private universities are doing in the area of mediation and other alternative ways of solving faculty complaints - what some term alternative dispute resolution. Special attention will be given to one of the most important ethical issues in this area at the operating level of individual universities - the due process procedures with respect to the processing of the grievances of individual faculty members in nonunionized colleges. Recommendations for university administrators and faculty senates, as well as recommendations for future research, are presented.

McCarthy, J. (1982). "Faculty Complaint Procedures: An aspect of preventive management." Lex Collegii 5(3).

McCarthy, J., I. Ladimer, et al. (1984). Managing Faculty Disputes. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

McCarthy, J. E. (1980). "Conflict and Mediation in the Academy." New Directions for Higher Education 32(1980): 1-8.
Nonadversarial approaches to conflict resolution should receive increasing attention from educators facing increased government regulations, stable budgets, and diminished spending power. Mediation, with its emphasis on accommodation and cooperative problem solving, can reinforce the education community's commitment to reasoned discourse and collegiality. (MLW)

McConnell, T. R. and K. P. Mortimer (1971). The Faculty in University Governance, California Univ. Berkeley. Center for Research and Development in Higher Education.: 206.
The empirical basis of this monograph is intensive case studies of faculty participation in the governance of one large multipurpose state college and two large complex state university campuses. The chapters are concerned with faculty oligarchies (who rules and how), faculty-administrative and faculty-trustee relationships, external constraints on faculty and institutional decisionmaking, decentralization of decisionmaking, and administrative leadership and style. The final chapter supports the principle of representative government, proposes means of strengthening the viability and accountability of academic senates, recommends that faculty members holding divergent views should be included in organs of faculty government, comes down on the side of shared responsibility and authority rather than separate faculty and administrative jurisdictions, and concludes that faculty unionism and collective bargaining may prove to be inimical to governance by joint participation and rational debate. However, the normality of contention and even conflict is assumed, and methods are proposed for institutionalizing conflict. A general political model of decisionmaking is set forth. (Author)

McCorkle, S. (1994). Directory of campus mediation programs and functions. Boise, Boise State University.

McDonald, C. B. (1994). ADR Clinic Directory (Law Schools), Pepperdine University.

McIntyre, J. (1993). University Policies and Procedures on Sexual Harassment. Annual Convention of the Speech Communication Association, Miami, FL, ERIC.
Sexual harassment complaints are challenges to the abuse of power in certain kinds of communicative relationships, and sexual harassment policies and procedures are ways of defining the responsible exercise of power and providing the means to address grievances that result from irresponsible and potentially harmful uses of power in those relationships. Harassment in colleges and universities can be particularly abusive, especially in relationships between faculty and students, because of the special character of trust and dependency that exists. Procedural fairness for all parties to a complaint can be assured if guidelines are developed; distributed and communicated widely among faculty, staff, and students; and training takes place. The guidelines should include both formal and informal remedies. Informal communicative remedies work best where the desired outcome is simply to bring the harassment to an end, and not necessarily to punish or expose those accused of harassment. Informal remedies such as mediation, counseling, or facilitated communication among the parties involved often deserve greater consideration either as part of or as alternatives to formal and legal remedies such as filing an appeal. Harassment situations are further complicated by nonhierarchical power relationships (such as harassment between students), resistance to the legitimacy of sexual harassment complaints, and the issue of consensual relationships.

McMillen, L. (1987). "Colleges Are Trying New Ways to Settle Campus Grievances." Chronicle of Higher Education 33(34): 14-15,17.
Mediation, in which a neutral third party helps two people come up with their own solutions, is being used to settle faculty and staff grievances. Experiences at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Duke University, Emory University, and the University of Cincinnati are described. (MLW)

Meacham, J. (1995). "Conflict in Multiculturalism Classes: Too Much Heat or Too Little?" Liberal Education 81(4): 24-29.
The issues that arise in a college course on multiculturalism can touch students very personally and may be a first opportunity for many students to talk face-to-face about important social issues. Anticipating when students may become defensive, angry, hurt, or when conflict might erupt will help faculty know when to lower or raise the temperature in the classroom. (MSE)

Metzger, L. (1979). Professors in Trouble: The Struggle for Academic Freedom in 20th Century America.
Academic freedom for the professoriate in America is discussed, based on quantitative analysis of almost a thousand cases from the files of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP). The cases represent a large sample of the academic freedom and tenure conflicts that developed during a period of more than four decades (1913-1957). The case files examined contain biographic details, definition of the situation, the professor's view, the administration's view, and AAUP perception of the situation. Problems frequently identified as core reasons for the disputes are faculty behavior, political opinions or activities of faculty, educational policy disputes, personality clashes, and faculty morals. A correlation between the size of the institution and the amount of reported complaints about academic freedom are reported; 61 percent of the complaints came from larger universities. Personal characteristics of the complaints rather than characteristics of the institutions and disciplinary fields are also correlated with dispute incidence; i.e., social scientists are more prone to see academic freedom overtones. Appendices and tables contain statistics of academic freedom cases over time periods, issues and behavior in the cases, institution size compared to number of cases, and academic freedom violations. (LC)

Meyer, J. A Conflict Management Unit.
While the basic course in communication cannot eradicate the violence sweeping American society, it can take important steps to reduce violence and conflict by acquainting all college students with alternative means for handling conflicts. First, the instructor should ask the students to try to define "conflict," and then responses to conflict should be discussed. Students can then be exposed to the five conflict styles (competition, compromise, collaboration, avoidance, and accommodation) by having students complete a questionnaire which presents statements about behaviors during conflict, or by having students write down both the dialogue and actions they would enact in one or several conflict situations. Students also need to become aware of what kind of communication can lead to problem solving. Many of these effective communication techniques are already taught in the basic course: awareness of perceptions, active listening, empathy, perspective-taking, nonverbal communication, and organized and clear presentations. Whether discussing conflict management for a day, a week, or two weeks, with at least one exercise and discussion on conflict management, students can be familiarized with a key tool for communicating in today's diverse world. (RS)

Mikalson, J. (1994). "Campus Conflict Resolution in Connecticut." The Fourth R 49(February/March): 33.

Miller, G. and S. Zoradl (1977). "Roommate Conflict Resolution." Journal of College Student Personnel(May): 228-230.

Miller, K. (1987). "The Effectiveness of Mediation in Higher Education." Journal on Dispute Resolution 3(1): 187-217.

Millett, J. D. (1984). Conflict in Higher Education: State Government Coordination versus Institutional Independence: 285.
The relationship between state governments and higher education institutions is analyzed, based on findings of research conducted in 25 states. After considering the multiple higher education institutions and their post-World War II development in the various states, the book reviews major studies concerned with state government and college relations. Higher education concerns of state governments that constitute the agenda in the 1980s are considered, and three major types of administrative organization at the state government level are defined: statewide governing board, state coordinating board, and state advisory board. Attention is also directed to the two primary arrangements for full-time professional leadership to state higher education boards. Two basic questions about public higher education that state governments must resolve are also addressed: the differentiation of mission among multiple institutions of higher education and the allocation of available resources among public institutions and public programs. In addition, information is provided about the financing of college and key issues concerning external constraints on academic freedom. Finally, institutional autonomy in relation to state governments is discussed, along with speculation about future relationships. (SW)

Mills, J. R. and N. Simpson (1986). Cross-Cultural Conflict in Higher Education, National Association for Developmental Education.

Mitau, G. T. Student Participation in Campus Government., Minnesota State Coll. Board, St. Paul.
There is no doubt that US institutions of higher education are often encrusted with traditions to the point where they no longer meet contemporary faculty and student needs. It is high time for educators in the US to admit that there is much merit in student desires for participatory campus governance, without which colleges and universities may cease to exist as viable and dynamic centers of intellectual growth. But the students' right to speak, protest, organize, and demonstrate for greater social justice and their perception of a more mature society must be safeguarded within the framework of campus law. Three considerations are offered that could ensure continuous inter-communication between students, faculty, and administrators. First, each campus should have an up-to-date table of organization that reveals the major decision-making agencies and responsible personnel. Second, each student leader should have a clear-cut understanding of his campus organization, and take responsibility for explaining it to his fellow students. Third, student leaders and faculty members should be continuously informed on the status of their suggestions, petitions, and requests in the campus governmental structure. A part of the educational experience should be experimentation with structures within which students, faculty, and administrators may solve problems in an environment of mutual respect and trust. (WM)

Mollov, B. Intercultural dialogue and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict : Lessons of a student dialogue, Bar-Ilan University.

Monk, S. C. (1997). Applying Mediation to Higher Education: A Topical Interest Essay. Centerville, OH, Personal Website.

Mooney, C. J. (1988). "For College Presidents, a Loss of Faculty Confidence Can Lead to War--Or Dialogue." Chronicle of Higher Education 34(44): A1,13,14.
Common threads have emerged in recent faculty-president disputes, reflecting a widening gulf between faculty eager to increase their influence and administrators under pressure from a variety of constituents to raise money, improve academic quality, control tuition costs, and maintain enrollment. (Author/MSE)

Moore, K. M. (1976). The War with the Tutors: Student-Faculty Conflict at Harvard and Yale, 1745-1771.
This study hypothesizes that social demographic distinctions figured importantly in the interactions of students and tutors. Answers are sought to these three questions: (1) Who were the college tutors? (2) Who were the students most often in conflict with tutors? (3) Based on questions one and two, are there any significant differences in the characteristics of both groups that tend to confirm or deny Henry Adams' conclusion that social distinctions were the root cause of student discontent? The study is based on an analysis of the published biographical data of the graduates of Harvard and Yale colleges, faculty records, student diaries, and other materials available for the years 1745-1771. The analysis on the pattern and system of the educational enterprise at the two schools during the years in question indicates that family background counted for much more than other "credentials"; each college held and attempted to impart a distinct sense of mission to all members of its community; and the colleges were perceived as necessary by some and useful by others, although they had not yet assumed their role as significantly important institutions for status or career attainment. These findings lead to the conclusion that the widespread confrontations at both institutions were essentially disputes over "manner" and that the confrontations were strongly linked to basic differences of social status between students and their tutors. Tables are included. (Author/DB)

Morrell, L. R. (1994). "The Human Resource Manager--Caught in the Middle." CUPA Journal 45(1): 33-40.
In retirement planning, the college or university human resources manager is positioned as representative of both the college administration, which has a simple legal obligation to employees, and employees, who must plan for financial security and independence. This administrator can affect employees' financial well-being by effective retirement fund management. (MSE)

Morrill, C. and C. K. Thomas (1992). "Organizational Conflict Management as Disputing Process: The Problem of Social Escalation." Human Communication Research 18(3): 400-28.
Develops an instrument to study organizational conflict management as a disputing process involving the social escalation from grievance to conflict and dispute stages. Finds differences in dispute process according to different strengths of informal relations. (SR)

Mortell, J. F. (1990). "There are no losers in mediation- the UCSB Way." Acuho-I Talking Stick(Dec.): 18.

Moses, P. S. (1997). Best Practices Manual: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Service-Learning and Mediation Assistance, Government Law Center of Albany Law School.

Mullaney, J. W. and E. M. Timberlake (1994). "University Tenure and the Legal System: Procedures, Conflicts, and Resolutions." Journal of Social Work Education 30(2 Spring/Summer): 172-184.

Murray, D. (1990). Understanding Conflict and Conflict Management: A Report to the Campus Community, Mansfield University.

Nash, G. and P. Nash Leads Columbia Could Have Followed, Columbia Univ. New York N.Y. Bureau of Applied Social Research.: 4.
The troubles at Columbia University arose when students supported the views of the community in a dispute with the University administration over the location of a proposed gymnasium on public park land. Its problems as an urban university in need of more land for expansion and surrounded by a deteriorating residential community are being experienced by many other American city colleges and universities. But, while Columbia was minimally involved with its neighborhood, other urban institutions have taken the lead in rebuilding their communities. The massive efforts of 2 other prestigious multiversities--the University of Chicago on Chicago's South Side and the University of Pennsylvania in West Philadelphia-- are examples of what can be done to better the urban environment and prevent the development of hostile relations between an urban university and its neighborhood. (JS)

Newman, F. (1987). Choosing quality : reducing conflict between the state and the university. Denver, Colo., Education Commission of the States.

Newman-Gonchar, R. (2002). "Civility in Higher Education." Colorado State University Journal of Student Affairs 11.
Renewed conversation about civility claims that it has decreased more rapidly in recent years. Students, faculty, staff, and researchers agree with the notion that civility is more of an issue today than it was ten years ago. This article tries to answer the following questions: What is civility? What has contributed to the increase in uncivil discourse? How can student affairs professionals help alleviate the problem?

NIDR (1991). Forum: Dispute Resolution in Education. Washington, DC, National Institute for Dispute Resolution. Spring.

Nims, D. R. and R. W. Wilson (1998). Violence Prevention Preparation: A Survey of Colleges of Education and Departments of Teacher Education.
Surveys of teacher education programs at U.S. colleges and universities examined what is being done to prepare teachers to respond to school violence and participate in prevention programs. Questionnaires were mailed to department heads and deans of colleges and universities belonging to the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. The questionnaires examined attitudes and policies with respect to including violence prevention in the teacher education curriculum. They asked whether there was a single course in the teacher education curriculum that focused exclusively on violence prevention and intervention in schools; whether the institution sponsored workshops related to violence prevention; and if faculty and staff consulted on a local or state level regarding issues related to school violence. Specific topics addressed included conflict resolution, peer mediation training, crisis response, gang awareness, classroom strategies for disruptive behaviors, violence de-escalation, and knowledge of search and seizure procedures and due process laws. A total of 350 administrators responded to the survey. Results indicated that most institutions were doing very little to prepare teachers to cope with school violence. Fewer than half believed their schools needed more preparation for teachers in violence preparation. Administrators who had heard reports about school violence from recent graduates tended to offer more workshops and seminars on violence. Contain 15 references. (Author/SM)

Nolan-Haley, J. M. and M. R. Volpe (1989). "Teaching Mediation as a Lawyering Role." Journal of Legal Education 39(4): 571-86.
A Fordham University law school course teaches mediation from a generic perspective that allows professors to deal with the professional responsibility and lawyering role issues without tying them to a specific subject matter or model, allowing students to develop a more comprehensive theory of lawyering. (MSE)

Nordvall, R. C. (1982). The Process of Change in Higher Education Institutions AAHE- ERIC/Higher Education Research Report, No 7, 1982, American Association for Higher Education Washington D.C. ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education Washington D.C.: 58.
Conditions that inhibit change in higher education institutions and various models of the change process are described. Attention is also directed to: organizational character, structural features, planning procedures, key individuals in the change process, and practical advice about change. The major change models for higher education institutions are: research, development, and diffusion (rational planning); problem solving; social interaction; political (conflict); linkage; and adaptive development. Structural features of the institution that may affect receptivity to change include school size and decentralized/centralized decision-making procedures. Characteristics that indicate openness to change include lateral rather than vertical communications, a consensus on operating goals, a spirit of self-examination, provision of resources for change, and widespread influence on decision- making. Ongoing planning processes that rely on institutional research data to plan long-range goals and to revise the plans periodically may allow the institution to respond to the need for change. Use of an internal versus an external change agent are compared. Steps in instituting change may involve trying to create a receptive climate, diagnosing the problem that led to a need for change, developing a proposal for implementing the change, campaigning to gain approval, and implementation. (SW)

Norman, N. F. (1968). The ombudsman: A new bird on campus. San Diego, San Diego State College.