Main Quad » Main Library Home »

Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors E-J)

Ehrle, E. and J. Bennett (1988). Redirecting Difficult People (Chapter 4) Meeting the Special Challenge (Chapter 6). Managing the Academic Enterprise: Case Studies for Deans and Provosts. New York, American Council on Education: 93-123.

Ehrle, E. and J. Bennett (1988). Redirecting Difficult People (Chapter 4). Managing the Academic Enterprise: Case Studies for Deans and Provosts. New York, American Council on Education: 93-123.

Eisikovits, R. A. and M. Karnieli (1992). "Acquiring Conflict Resolution Skills as Cultural Learning: An Israeli Example." Higher Education 23(2): 183-94.
A University of Haifa (Israel) introductory course in educational anthropology taught skills for conflict resolution, focusing on interethnic openness and tolerance. Student-developed scenarios of educational conflicts, and their resolutions revealed differences between Jewish and Arab students in conflict-resolution style. Implications are discussed. (Author/MSE)

Ellis, J. M. (1974). Grievance Procedures: Real and Ideal.
Some complaints by faculty members that they have been aggrieved by their institutions are inevitable. Well-planned procedures to resolve these grievances, adopted in advance, can allow institutional committees great discretion in quiet conflict resolution. (Editor/PG)

Ellis, R. S. (1986). The private adjudication center at Duke, Duke University Law School.

Ellis, S. and J. Hernandez (1996). "Dealing with Conflict." NASPA Forum 16(7): 1-3.
This brief newsletter article reports on a survey of 89 student affairs professionals about how they feel about, deal with, and act upon conflict. It also explores similarities and differences in how men and women perceive and resolve conflict.

Engram, B. (1985). Mediation and Conflict Resolution (for Resident Assistants). The Experienced Resident Assistant. G. Bliming. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: 159-166.

Evans, R. A. and et al. (1980). Case Studies in Higher Education Ministries, National Inst. for Campus Ministries, Lafayette, Ind.
A look at the case method of studying higher education ministries begins with an essay on the use of the method and is followed by three case studies. In the introductory essay, Robert A. Evans discusses the advantages of the method: that it represents slices of real life and not imagined illustrations of issues, that it can focus on specific issues that require examination, and that it can facilitate progress toward three goals of instruction: wisdom, maturity, and discernment. Hints for teaching and learning the case are given including the instructor role, preparation for discussion, and teaching tools. The first case study presented, by Douglas H. Gregg, examines the campus ministry's role in helping a new and controversial faculty member deal with a difficult academic issue. The second case study, described by Alice Frazer Evans, looks at the role of a woman pastor in dealing with the problems of Iranian students on the campus shortly after the 1979 taking of American hostages in Iran. The final case study, also by Alice Frazer Evans, focuses on the issue of student desire for opportunities for worship at a state college. In each case study, ideas are presented for the uses of the case and areas for possible discussion. (MSE)

Falk, D. R. and H. L. Carlson (1986). Using Videodisc Programs on "Understanding Groups" in a University Setting: 10.
The College of Education and Human Services Professions at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, has undertaken to develop several videodisc programs to be incorporated into the undergraduate core curriculum and inservice education for teachers and human service professionals. "Understanding Groups," which is the initial curriculum disc of the series, contains full modules on shared leadership, group goals and goal structures, group communication, and conflict resolution. An additional module briefly covers group decision making, power in groups, and leadership styles. Each major module includes a pretest and instruction, practice, and application sections, and the videodisc program allows users to learn concepts through either inductive or deductive tracks. The videodisc is the central part of an integrated learning package which also includes learner and instructor manuals and videotaped examples of four different types of groups. A key research component of the project was the front end analysis conducted in preparation for designing "Understanding Groups," which included learner analyses and interviews with subject matter experts. Formative and summative evaluations are also being undertaken to study and improve the effectiveness of the disc. Administrative support and enthusiastic trained individuals capable of teamwork were found to be prerequisites to developing videodiscs in a university setting, as well as funding, human resources, and physical plant resources. (MES)

Farrell, C. S. (1988). "Students Protesting Racial Bias at U of Massachusetts End Occupation of Campus Building after 5 Days." Chronicle of Higher Education 34(24): A41,42.
The chancellor of the University of Massachusetts has reached agreement with Black student protesters who were angered by recent alleged racial incidents on campus. Demands included suspension of students and an employee involved in the incidents, cultural support, revision of the student code, and increased minority enrollments. (MSE)

Femenia, N. and P. Pederson (1990). Preparing Mediators To Handle Multi-Cultural Conflict. First National Conference on Campus Mediation, Syracuse, NY.

Ferguson, T. H. and W. L. Bergan (1974). "Grievance-Arbitration Procedures and Contract Administration." Journal of College and University Law 1(4): 371-89.
Identifies and comments on methods that higher education institutions and unions have agreed to for the settlement of collective bargaining disputes or grievances in the 150 existing labor agreements covering more than 210 institutions, nearly 70 percent of them 2-year institutions. The institutions covered by these agreements are listed. (JT)

Fernandez, C. (1977). Cultural Plurality in Higher Education: A Conflict Approach.
A general theoretical framework, group conflict analysis, can be applied to the study of cultural plurality in higher education. Basically, the conflict perspective views society as a conglomerate of interest groups competing for dominance in and of society. Once a group gains dominance it will monopolize resources in an attempt to maintain and perpetuate its ruling status. The institutions of society become part of the resources controlled by the dominant group. In modern corporate societies education is a major institution and resource for the ruling group. Higher education (particularly schools of education) is a key institution because it creates and perpetuates ideologies which govern the formal compulsory education of all individuals. Institutions of higher education mirror the stratified ordering of the larger society. Culturally pluralistic programs in higher education are subject to the same second-class (or lower-status) citizenship as their respective ethnic groups in the larger society. Higher education tends to follow a unicultural monolingual ideology which favors one group over all others. A truly democratic society may diminish group conflicts through its policies by assuring equal opportunity to all members, regardless of cultural group membership. (Author/AN)

Fine, E. S. (1997). "Shaping and Reshaping Practice: Preparing Teachers for Peacemaking." Theory into Practice 36(1): 53-58.
Describes several exploratory sites where peacemaking is becoming an integral part of teacher education and reeducation within a university, research site, and student teaching practicum. The paper introduces a peacemaking school, highlighting shared learning of an experienced and a student teacher who wrote, read, talked, listened, and problem solved in their classroom. (SM)

Fischer, M. (1997). "Stuck in the Middle Again." ADE Bulletin(116 (Spring)): 38-40.
Discusses mediation as an avenue of exploration for department chairs who are finding themselves overwhelmed by disputes among their ranks. Draws on mediation research in describing different approaches to resolving conflict.

Fiske, P. (1998). Dysfunctional advisee-advisor relationships: Methods for negotiating begond conflict, Amer. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science. 1999.

Fiutak, T. (1990). Models Of Mediation on Campus. First National Conference on Campus Mediation, Syracuse, NY.

Flanagan, D. (1975). Research on Commuter Students From 1971-1975: 15.
Research in higher education attributes significant differences to the learning experiences of commuter and resident students. The literature indicates that the nature of the on-campus experience, the characteristics of the student, and the motivation for learning for the commuter student may have significant implications for educational planning. The actual number of commuter students in American higher education is in dispute. It is clear, though, that commuter students compose a larger percentage of the student population in American higher education. For this review, commuter students will be defined as those student living with their parents, spouse, family or by themselves, but are not simply "living off campus." This review of the literature focuses on the commuter student as a unique person in higher education and with educational needs distinctive from the resident student and the student "living off campus." The review will be concerned only with the literature published in the last 5 years (1971-1975). The literature suggests particular characteristics for a commuter student, effects of commuting on the educational experience, and it reviews several models, proposed and in operation for meeting the needs of commuting students. (Author/PG)

Flory, G. L. (1997). "Conflict resolution across the curriculum." Fourth R 79(Aug./Sept.).

Folberg, J. and K. E. Claus (1989). Dispute resolution education and training : a video reference guide. Washington, DC, National Institute For Dispute Resolution.

Folger, J. and J. Shubert (1985). Resolving Student Initiated Grievances in Higher Education: Dispute resolution procedures in a non-adversarial setting, National Institute for Dispute Resolution.

Forcey, L. R. and B. Rainforth (1998). "Team teaching "conflict resolution in educational and community settings": An experiment in collaboration and conflict resolution." Peace & Change 23(3): 373-385.

Frazier, P. and R. Keller (1992). "Students and Faculty--Administrators Together." College Teaching 40(1): 21-23.
A course taught at Western Washington University's Fairhaven College brings together all 13 faculty and a third of the student population in an interdisciplinary effort to address the theme of conflict. The course is administered by a student and a faculty member and exemplifies the difficulties of collaborative administration. (MSE)

Fuller, R. M. (1998). Building a Mediation and Conflict Resolution Studies Curriculum Based on Competency., ERIC Clearinghouse ED426422.
David Pearce Snyder has predicted that "if a significant number of major mainstream institutions do not undertake publicly acknowledged initiatives to dramatically improve the relevance of their curriculums, the rigor of their standards, and the productivity of their operations...the marketplace will have begun to make available so many effective alternatives for acquiring formal higher-order skills that traditional colleges and universities will quickly come to be regarded as the old-fashioned, outdated, expensive source of postsecondary schooling." This paper discusses a program in Conflict and Mediation Studies within the School of Speech Communication at James Madison University in Virginia, which was initiated in response to the perception that the university is undergoing a radical change in the way teaching and learning are understood. The paper describes the methodology of how the program proceeded: relevant faculty was assembled and a consensus reached; outcome objective statements were written for each of the four courses being changed; instruments and activities concerned with these outcome statements will be created; and the development of instructional materials will be in direct response to specific outcome objective statements. According to the paper, this program of curriculum revision dramatically improves the relevance of the curriculum, increases the rigor of performance standards, and will contribute to the ability to clearly and precisely articulate the knowledge, skills, and competencies defining the learning environment. Appended are goal statements and outcome objective statements for the four courses. (Contains 10 references.)

Gadlin, H. (1991). "Careful maneuvers: mediating sexual harassment." Negotiation Journal 7: 139.

Gadlin, H. (1991). "Racial and Ethnic Conflict on Campus." The Fourth R 33(June/July): 1-?

Gadlin, H. (1997). "UCLA Conflict Mediation Program: Tools for Bridging Diversity." CAHRO Newsletter(October/November):

Gadlin, H. and M. Paludi (1990). The Use and Abuse of Mediation for Sexual Harassment Cases. First National Conference on Campus Mediation, Syracuse University.

Gahr, R., J. B. Mosca, et al. (1995). "Conflict resolution and mediation." Leadership & Organization Development Journal 16(8): 37.
Describes a project at Monmouth College (now Monmouth University) in New Jersey

Galton, E. (1998). "Mediation Programs for Collegiate Sports Teams." Dispute Resolution Journal 53(4 (Nov)): 37-39.
Disputes arise in collegiate sports programs between players and between players and coaches. Such disputes, if not dealt with effectively, may adversely affect team morale and performance on the field. The conventional approach to such problems has been authoritarian in nature. Dispute resolution techniques, especially those like mediation, which empowers players to communicate and generate their own solutions, may be more effective than the authoritarian approach. In terms of format, the mediation training has 2 critical phases: 1. the general training for the team and coaches, and 2. the specialized training for the team mediators. An overview of a mediation program tailored for the specific needs of collegiate sports teams is presented.

Garcia, E. (1997). "The Chair as Mediator: Balancing the New and the Old While Winds Roar." ADFL Bulletin 28(3 Spring): 18-20.
Foreign language department chairs are faced with leadership challenges that require them to mediate between new forces and old practices and between youthful enthusiasm and proven experience. While some changes demanded by current circumstances must be opposed, leaders must choose their battles carefully. Several real examples are explored.

Gay, G. (1982). "Using Video to Resolve Community Conflict." Journal of Extension 20(Mar-Apr): 21-24.
Using video to communicate between two opposing groups lets each side work through the issue's emotional aspects and outlines possible solutions. (Author/JOW)

Getman, J. (1992). In the Company of Scholars: The Struggle for the Soul of Higher Education. Austin, University of Texas Press.

Gibson, J. (1994). "University of Oregon's Professionally Staffed Mediation Program." The Fourth R 50(April/May): 36.

Gibson, J. (1995). Can't We Settle This? Student Conflicts in Higher Education and Options for Resolution. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 27-34.

Gibson, J., R. Leal, et al. (1994). Building Your Own Campus Mediation Program: Different models of college and university programs. National Association for Mediation in Education Ninth Annual Conference, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Gilbreath, S. H., L. Goodstein, et al. (1975). Third-party intervention in a campus crisis: methods of conflict resolution. San Diego, Institute of Public and Urban Affairs, San Diego State University.

Girard, K., A. Townley, et al. (1985). Peaceful Persuasion: A Guide to Creating Mediation Dispute Resolution Programs for College Campuses. Amherst, MA, The Mediation Project.
A guide to mediation program planning is presented for college campuses. The concept of a college mediation program is considered, along with issues of needs, benefits, program focus, and goals. Mediation is discussed in the context of the overall field of alternative dispute resolution and is distinguished from other forms of conflict resolution. Also examined are planning questions that arise once needs are understood and program goals are determined. Information is included that might be helpful in making decisions about program location on campus; mediator training, selection and evaluation; and case referral. Practical matters are also addressed, including obtaining support, funding, and referrals, and preparing for intake interviews and mediation sessions. Two major questions that affect program operations are also discussed: (1) the why, when, and what of program expansion; and (2) the legal issues involved in mediating disputes. The manual incorporates examples from mediation programs that vary in size, focus, or approach. A resource section provides a list of programs and materials for additional help. Case studies demonstrate a range of mediation uses and the way mediation works in practice. Forms for intake and trainee evaluation are provided, along with information on print and individual resources concerning mediation.

Gmelch, W. H. (1991). The Creation of Constructive Conflict Within Eduational Administration Departments. Washington, ERIC Clearinghouse.
Issues in the resolution of departmental conflict by university chairs of educational administration departments are discussed in this paper, originally presented at the 1991 convention of the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). The need for finding more constructive ways to handle conflict is highlighted by a survey of 808 department chairs at 101 research and doctoral-granting universities, in which chairs identified intercollegial conflict as the major category of stress. The view of principled conflict management that recognizes conflict as necessary is advocated, 10 structural relationships that contribute to conflict are identified, and an analytical framework for developing a reform agenda is presented. The role of the chair as mediator is also discussed. The recommendation is made that reform be developed in a climate of constructive conflict. Five tables are included. (25 references)

Gmelch, W. H. (1995). Department Chairs Under Siege: Resolving the Web of Conflict. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 35-42.

Gmelch, W. H. (1998). Managing Conflict From the Middle. Mending the Cracks in the Ivory Tower. S. Holton. Bolton, MA, Anker Publishing Company.

Gmelch, W. H. and J. B. Carroll (1991). "The Three Rs of Conflict Management for Department Chairs and Faculty." Innovative Higher Education 16(2): 107-123.

Goldmann, R. (1980). Roundtable justice, case studies in conflict resolution : reports to the Ford Foundation. Boulder, Colo., Westview Press.

Gow, S. and L. Salmon-Cox (1972). University-Urban Interface Program A University and Its Community Confront Problems and Goals, Pittsburgh Univ. Pa. University Urban Interface Program.: 78.
This is a report on a series of University-Community Forums in the Goals Project of the University-Urban Interface Program of the University of Pittsburgh in which the relationships of urban universities and their urban communities are explored. A review of the original study plan and an explanation of departures from this plan precedes a discussion of an opinion survey on community goals and four forums conducted during the project. Topics chosen for the forums were: 1) Conflict Utilization; 2) Administration of Justice; 3) The Domain of Health; and 4) Goals and Government of the Metropolis. Four common guidelines for improving university and community interaction which emerged from the forums are defined together with a related area in which community and university participants remained in disagreements. Related documents are represented by ED 063 897 through ED 063 903, ED 066 398, ED 065 426, ED 065 427, HE 003 261, and SO 004 803 through SO 004 806. (SHM)

Graden, D. T. (1997). "Encouraging Values Conducive to Conflict Resolution in the Classroom at University of Idaho." Martin Institute News 7(1 March):

Graff, G. (1998). Administration in the Age of Conflict. Mending the Cracks in the Ivory Tower. S. Holton. Bolton, MA, Anker Publishing Company.

Griffin, T. (1995). "The evolution of the role of ombudsperson on university and college campuses." Fourth R 55(Feb./Mar.).

Griffin, T., B. J. Hudson, et al. (1995). The Ombuds Handbook: A practical guide to establishing and operating an ombuds office on a college or university campus, University and College Ombuds Association.

Grumbach, J. E. and Massachusetts Continuing Legal Education Inc. (1982- ) (1997). Anatomy of a mediation : mock mediation vignettes-- plus analysis, practice tips, and discussion. Boston, MA (Ten Winter Pl., Boston 02108-4751), Mcle.

Guerra, N. S. and N. Flinchbaugh (1993). Expanding the ombuds office: A systems approach to dispute resolution on campus, UCI Ombudsman: The journal. 1998.

Haak, H. H. (1982). Parable of a President, American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, D.C.
A fictional account of 1 school year in the life of a university president is presented to illustrate the conflicts within the university. A meeting with state officials regarding the university's 1979-1980 budget request is described, including the president's premeeting anticipation and his thoughts about the dynamics of interactions. Diverse phone calls received by the president are interspersed with his serious reflections regarding the budget request document and the political influences to the state decision-making process. After the legislative budget committee meeting, the president's responsibilities included: an all-day planning retreat on general education; a meeting with the State Education Commission regarding the university's academic master plan; meeting with the campus attorney regarding employee and student litigation and grievances; and a session with the faculty executive committee. The concept of "up-tight management," which emphasizes the simultaneous, or mixed, presence of conflict-oriented models along with various models that deemphasize conflict, is discussed in an afterword. The president placed a high priority on building a consensus on institutional purposes and priorities. The college was stressful because of disagreements about the university's goals as well as conflicting process or procedural models. The school was in transition from a teachers college to a liberal arts college, and then to a regional university. (SW)

Halbrook, S. A. E. and T. E. E. Grace (1994). Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993. [Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (43rd, Clearwater Beach, Florida, September 12-15, 1993).], Farm Foundation, Chicago, Ill.
The annual conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (NPPEC) is held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. This publication contains 26 conference papers: "Rural America and the Information Revolution: An Exploration of Possibilities and Potentialities" (David Pearce Snyder); "Observations on Agricultural Policy, Policy Reform and Public Policy Education" (John E. Lee, Jr.); "The Status of Agriculture in 1993" (Marty Strange); "A Legislative Perspective on Current and Future Changes in U.S. Farm Policy" (Chip Conley); "Farm Group Perspective on U.S. Farm Policy" (Harry Bell); "Public Policy in a Changing Society" (Otto Doering); "Innovations in Public Policy Education" (Alan J. Hahn); "Alternative Dispute Resolution Approaches to Conflict Management" (Ronald C. Faas); "Collaborative Dispute Resolution Processes" (Robert M. Jones); "Use of ADR in Extension Public Policy Education Programs and Roles Extension Can Play in Dispute Resolution" (Leon E. Danielson & Simon K. Garber); "Framing Public Issues and Working with the Media" (JoAnn Myer Valenti); "Building Coalitions for Educating and Problem Solving: Process, Roles, Warnings and Styles for Extension Involvement" (Fielding Cooley and Others); "Educational Coalitions, Political Coalitions and Roles for Extension" (Alan J. Hahn); "Ethical Issues in Health Care Reform" (Mark H. Waymack); "Health Reform: What the Clinton Plan and Alternatives Mean to Rural and Urban America" (Edward F. Howard); "Health Care Reform: The Implications for Health Data Systems" (Ronald C. Young); "A Case Study of Extension's Response to Health Care Reform" (Lorraine Garkovich); "Public Issues Education and the NPPEC" (Walter J. Armbruster); "Public Issues Education: A Cooperative Extension System Initiative to Improve Public Decisions" (Ayse C. Somersan); "Public Issues Education and the National Public Policy Education Committee" (Barry L. Flinchbaugh); "Environmental Policy: The Legislative and Regulatory Agenda" (Michael T. Olexa); "Impacts of Reduced Pesticide Use on the Profitability of the Fruit and Vegetable Sector" (Charles Hall and others); "Impacts of EPA Dairy Waste Regulations on Farm Profitability" (Ronald D. Knutson and others); "Environmental Policy and Natural-Resource-Based Economic Development" (Tim Phipps); "Environmental Policy: Impacts on Natural-Resource-Based Economic Development" (Robert P. Jones); and "Tourism, Natural Environments and Public Policy" (Clyde F. Kiker and Andrew Seidl). Also contains abstracts of presentations, poster and display session topics, and a list of conference participants. (KS)

Hale, C. L. and L. M. Cooks (1994). Dispute Resolutions, American Bar Association Chicago IL. Commission on College and University Legal Studies.: 14.
Focusing on the teaching of alternative dispute resolutions at universities, Claudia L. Hale and Leda M. Cooks argue that mediation should be taught primarily as a communication process that involves the joint efforts of mediator and disputants. Teachers of mediation should begin by distinguishing mediation from other forms of dispute resolution, explain the steps of the mediation process, and the need for an impartial mediator. In an article describing the creation of a master's degree program in dispute resolution at Wayne State University, Marvin Zalman explains the difficulties of identifying interested faculty across the disciplines and establishing new courses with limited resources. The curriculum established at Wayne State included eight core courses--Democratic Theory and Conflict Resolution; Roots of Social Conflict; Negotiating Theory and Practice; Neutral Intervention Theory and Practice; Communications, Culture and Conflict; Human Diversity and Human Conflict; Practicum in Dispute Resolution; Seminar in Dispute Resolution. Arguing that teachers in business schools should introduce students to mediation as a way of avoiding legal costs and negative publicity, Elizabeth V. Swenson offers role- playing strategies that illustrate the advantages of mediation to business. Other articles present ideas for teaching law and society courses from a design perspective and for applying the law as a teaching tool in non-law sociology courses. (JD)

Hale, C. L. and L. M. Cooks (1994). "Teaching dispute mediation from a communication perspective: Exploring the practice and the paradoxes." Focus on law studies 9(2): 1,5.
Focusing on the teaching of alternative dispute resolutions at universities, Claudia L. Hale and Leda M. Cooks argue that mediation should be taught primarily as a communication process that involves the joint efforts of mediator and disputants. Teachers of mediation should begin by distinguishing mediation from other forms of dispute resolution, explain the steps of the mediation process, and the need for an impartial mediator.

Hale, S. J. (1987). A mediation program model for the Univ. of Oregon. Interdisciplinary studies, Univ. of Oregon: 73-98.

Hanisch, K. A. and P. J. Carnevale Gender Differences in Mediator Behavior.
Use of a mediator to facilitate voluntary agreements between disputants is becoming a widely used method of conflict resolution in a variety of contexts. This study simulated a dispute to examine the influence of mediator and negotiator gender on mediator behavior. Male (N=94) and female (N=94) college students mediated a computer-simulated dispute between either two males, two females, or a male/female pair. The results revealed a gender difference in the type of messages the mediators sent to those designated as bargainers. Compared to females, males were more confident in their ability to mediate and felt that their recommendations had greater influence on negotiators. It was more important to females that the negotiators approve of their recommendations. Males used coercive pressing and compensating tactics more than did females; females used integrating tactics and were more inactive than were males. Mediators were more likely to use coercive pressing and compensating tactics with opposite gender negotiation pairs than with same gender pairs. No gender related effects were found for the quality of mediators' proposals. (Author/NB)

Hardy, E. and et al. (1984). "Learning to Live with Others: A Program to Prevent Problems in Living Situations." Journal of Counseling & Development 63(2): 110-12.
Describes a program dealing with preventive interventions for roommate conflict. Chickering's vectors of development are used to generate areas of conflict for students of college age. (Author)

Harman, K. M. (1989). "Culture and Conflict in Academic Organization: Symbolic Aspects of University Worlds." Journal of Educational Administration 27(3): 30-54.
A recent organizational study examined the different cultural worlds of senior members of the academic staff at the University of Melbourne. Outlines a new culture perspective that is applied to academic organization and emphasizes the utility and value of a cultural view.

Harman, K. M. (1989). Using Culture To Understand Conflict within a University: Professional versus Academic Values in University Professional Schools in Australia.
The idea that professional schools represent a sector where two particular sets of conflicting norms are clearly apparent is discussed. Teaching staff in university professional schools inhabit an ambivalent cultural world. Their dual mandate requires commitment to traditional academic norms and scholarship through the disciplines along with commitment to the transmission of distinctly vocational skills and attitudes. Conflicts commonly experienced by teaching staff in the schools of medicine, law, social studies, music, education, and environmental planning at the University of Melbourne are examined. Three sections look at the following: (1) tensions between teaching and research (balancing theory and practice, conflicting ideologies); (2) tensions induced by the influence of the practicing professions on professional schools (courses, divided loyalties involving professional association activity); and (3) tensions between professional schools and nonprofessional fields (involvement in university matters, university ignorance of professional school activity). Findings suggest that university leaders who are mindful of the cultural origins of and are sensitive to the tensions between the conflicting roles are more likely to develop strategies that minimize symbolic separation and ensure the survival and growth of both the academic-scholarly and practice-oriented cultures. Contains 11 references. (Author/SM)

Harris, I. M. (1990). Peace Studies in the United States at the University and College Level.
The number of peace studies programs on campuses in the United States has grown dramatically since the first such program was begun in 1948. At the beginning of the 1990s, the world is experiencing a renaissance in peace related activities that include tearing down the Iron Curtain, nonviolent revolutions in Europe's East Bloc and the Philippines, citizen diplomacy, arms reduction, and peer mediation in the schools. Peace studies attempt to analyze these developments, providing a historical foundation and a theoretical understanding of how these efforts contribute to the cessation of violence. This paper describes 13 peace and conflict resolution programs in the United States at the beginning of the 1990s. A table that indicates the most frequently chosen books by peace educators is included. (DB)

Harris, I. M., C. Rank, et al. (1997). Peace Studies in the West. Peace Education Reports No. 16, Lund Univ., Malmo (Sweden). Dept. of Educational and Psychological Research.
Peace studies explores organized non-violence and violence; their relationships to society, behavior, and consciousness; and ways of working toward a just and harmonious world community. Noting a fairly rapid growth in peace studies courses on college and university campuses during the last half of the 20th century, this report provides a description of the form, special structures, and programs of peace studies in colleges and universities in Western Europe and North America. The document describes a rich array of peace studies programs and course offerings, especially those that focus on conflict resolution. These programs rely heavily on voluntary efforts by dedicated individuals and have had too little, long term, institutional funding. A 48-item reference list concludes the report. (EH)

Harris, T. E. (1980). Introducing Analysis of Conflict Theory Into the Social Science Classroom.
The paper provides a simplified introduction to conflict theory through a series of in-class exercises. Conflict resolution, defined as negotiated settlement, can occur through three forms of communication: tacit, implicit, and explicit. Tacit communication, taking place without face-to- face or written interaction, refers to inferences made and action taken on the basis of mutual knowledge or assumptions about the other's probable responses. Implicit communication is the expression of intent to perform some act. Explicit communication is action performed. Classroom exercises illustrating each form of communication in conflict situations are described. Tacit communication is illustrated by situations in which two parties must act to achieve a common goal, without opportunity to communicate; their action must be based on assumptions made about the other's response, based on acquaintance with the common knowledge and culture shared by both. Implicit communication is illustrated by situations in which three parties engage in negotiations in which offers and counteroffers, which may benefit or injure the parties in varying degrees, are made before action is taken. Important conflict-resolution concepts illustrated in these exercises are power relationships, persuasion, inducement, and constraint. Explicit communication is illustrated by the "Prisoners' Dilemma," in which two prisoners accused of a crime are separated and given the option of confessing or not confessing. The punishment each will receive depends both on his own response and on the unknown response of the other prisoner. Important conflict-resolution concepts illustrated by this exercise are gain, preservation, trust, competition, cooperation, and perception of self and others. The author stresses that while for the purpose of the exercises the three forms of communication are separate from each other, in reality they interact with each other in almost every conflict situation. (Author/KC)

Hartman, J. B. (1977). Change and Conflict in the University: Reprint Available (See.
The modern university reflects many of the tensions and stresses of the wider society of which it is a part. The conditions generating conflict are related to the ambiguity and multiplicity of academic goals. Within the context of a political model of the university, various strategic and tactical methods for dealing with conflict between students, faculty and administrators are considered. (Editor)

Hartman, J. B. (1977). "Change and Conflict in the University." Journal of Educational Thought 11(1): 3-15.
The modern university reflects many of the tensions and stresses of the wider society of which it is a part. The conditions generating conflict are related to the ambiguity and multiplicity of academic goals. Within the context of a political model of the university, various strategic and tactical methods for dealing with conflict between students, faculty and administrators are considered. (Editor)

Hartzog, C. (1995). "Intervention in L.A.: Conflict Prevention and Mediation Program at UCLA." Educational Record 76(1): 44-52.
This article discusses the development and operation of the Conflict Prevention and Mediation Program (CPMP) at the University of California-Los Angeles, which is designed to address conflicts related to cultural diversity on campus and in the community. The contributions of six CPMP participants and future directions for the program are highlighted. (MDM)

Harvey, J. W. (1978). "Comment on what a university ombudsman does." J of higher ed 49(1): 23-29.

Hayden, S. R. (1997). The Ombuds Office in Higher Education: 21.
This document analyzes the responses to a survey conducted in 1997 on the role of the Ombuds Office in higher education, and also considers the characteristics of professional neutrality needed for successful conflict resolution. Of 178 institutions surveyed, 109 responses include 54 institutions with ombudsmen, 7 without such a position but with related information, and 48 with neither. The document examines programs at the respondent institutions, noting the year the position was established (for the 54 institutions with a formal office), and the supervising authority for the office (the president being the most frequently cited). Also discussed and tabulated are other positions held by ombudspeople, the quality of the authority, and the breakdown of clients, cases, and resolution times. The wide range of programs is attributed to the lack of a centralized concept, which permits each institution to develop a model suited to its own requirements; such models serve, variously, only students, students and faculty, faculty and staff, or students, faculty, and staff. Appended are a summary of student traffic in 1997 at the Ombuds Office of the University of Florida by month, sex, race, academic year, college, and category of complaint, and a list of survey participants. (Contains 13 references.) (BF)

Hayes, J. A. and C. P. Balogh (1990). "Mediation: An emerging form of dispute resolution on college campuses." NASPA Journal 27(3): 236-240.

Hayon, L. K. (1989). To Be or To Desist--Dilemmas Encountered by University Professors: 15.
A study attempting to disclose dilemmas encountered by university professors as a means of better understanding their inner world is discussed. The nature of these dilemmas is investigated via the thinking aloud technique. Twelve subjects were asked to think aloud about dilemmas they encountered in their work, and the flow of thoughts was protocolled verbatim and subjected to content analysis. The topics of dilemmas were divided into three categories, in descending order of frequency: knowledge (old and new, academic interests, general liberal education and professional education, quality and equality, specialization and integration, disciplines, and teaching); computers (old and new and fear of neglect of values and ideology); and research (quantitative and qualitative research methods and research addiction). All of these dilemmas entailed a time element. The rapid growth of knowledge that characterizes this era generated several needs which in turn brought forth the dilemmas mentioned. Differences among faculties as well as individual differences emerged. Out of the 12 personal profiles, two disclosed some salient and idiosyncratic characteristics. The distribution of dilemmas among faculties shows members of the social sciences faculty seem to encounter a larger range of dilemmas as compared to their colleagues in the other faculties. New technologies and accumulation of knowledge do not affect the humanities as much as other areas. Contains 18 references. (Author/SM)

Hebein, R. (1999). "The Prevention and Cure of Campus Disputes." New Directions for Teaching and Learning (n77 p87-95 Spr 1999).
Institutional approaches to alternative dispute resolution can offer students and faculty a safe, non-judgmental environment for addressing disputes and promoting campus civility. Issues discussed include ways to promote an institutional atmosphere of civility; creation of structures for conflict resolution and alternative dispute resolution; use of conciliation theory; and related concerns for neutrality, advocacy, confidentiality, and credibility. (Author/MSE)

Heinecken, D. and J. E. Gromko (1999). "Conflict Management and University teaching assistants: An action research approach." Martin Journal of Conflict Resolution 2.

Heirich, M. (1971). The Spiral of Conflict: Berkeley, 1964. New York, Columbia University Press.

Helms, L. B. and J. Seal (1988). Dismissals of Tenured Faculty for Incompetence: An Analysis of Litigation Patterns. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.
The status of litigation involving dismissals of tenured faculty for reasons of incompetence, broadly defined, is evaluated. In practice, there is no consensus within higher education as to what constitutes adequate cause based on incompetence for dismissal of faculty members. The following issues are explored: (1) the pattern of increasing litigation; (2) patterns of litigation by institutional type; (3) forums for disputing these litigations; (4) prevailing parties to the dispute; (5) procedural issues that have been litigated; (6) substantative issues that have been litigated; (7) subcategories of behavior alleged to be incompetent; and (8) the role of the court in resolving disputes over faculty dismissals. All recorded court decisions which resulted in the dismissal of a tenured faculty member in a postsecondary institution for reasons of incompetence from January 1960 through March 1988 were surveyed. The resulting patterns of litigation are discussed, providing perspectives about the court's role in disputes over evaluation of tenured faculty. The growing judicial involvement--state and federal--in such decisions, and variation in litigation by type of institution are discussed. The fairly strong position of institutions involved in litigation is confirmed. The caselaw illustrates the importance of procedural issues in litigating. Classification of the cases on dismissal for incompetence into three subcategories (incompetence, insubordination, and neglect of duty) sheds some light on litigation patterns and strategies. Contains 55 references and 9 tables. (SM)

Helsabeck, R. (1980). "The Student Personnel Administrator as Milieu Manager: Reducing Destructive Conflict through Social Science Research." Journal of College Student Personnel 21(3): 264-68.
Destructive conflict can inflict heavy costs on a college or university. Student personnel administrators, by using their knowledge of social scientific research, can serve as milieu managers, thereby reducing destructive conflict. Specific policies grounded in empirical research are provided. (Author)

Heredia, R. and M. Ambler (1997). "Born in Conflict, D-Q Evolved to Peacemaking." Tribal College 8(3): 16-17.
Describes California's D-Q University, founded in 1970 by American Indians and Chicanos. Highlights the University's collaboration with Indian Dispute Resolution Services (IDRS) to provide courses toward a certificate in conflict management and resolution. Reviews IDRS' efforts, indicating that its techniques are rooted in traditional Indian culture. (AJL)

Higgerson, M. L. (1996). Communication Skills for Department Chairs: 284.
Communication strategies needed for the specific responsibilities of college and university department heads are presented. Each chapter first describes communication strategies useful in handling an administrative task, and then uses real-life case studies to demonstrate their applications in typical situations. Readers are guided through a series of questions and exercises enabling them to participate in the needed analysis, decision-making, and problem-solving. Contents include communication issues and strategies, a series of cases, and case analysis exercises that apply to these tasks: structuring the department mission; enhancing the department climate; defining department ethics; conducting performance counseling; managing conflict; implementing change; working with the dean; building alliances; and promoting the department. An index of cases by higher education issue and administrative task covers such issues as: academic dishonesty, affirmative action, alumni relations, collegiality, crisis management, delegation of duties, department climate, development/fundraising, due process and individual rights, faculty complaints and grievances, governance issues, instructional quality, merit pay, performance counseling, productivity, promotion and tenure decisions, and scientific misconduct. (Contains 24 references.) (MSE)

Hindman, J. E. and M. A. Robinson (1994). Un-rapping the Invisible Man: Black and White Styles in Conflict A Panel Presentation (including The Conventions of Distance the Effects of Schooling on Style by Michael A Robinson): 16.
A video tape of a freshman composition student at the University of Arizona shows the difficulty she has faced in writing classes because of her black dialect. Her instructor points out that the student, after some of the readdings in class, recognizes that she has learned code switching on her own to survive in the educational system; this learning to switch codes might have been facilitated by the educational system. Similarly, another instructor in English, on viewing the same video tape, reminisces on his own frustrations as a minority student, yet he notes that issues of style are more complicated than they appear, perhaps more complicated than the taped writing student realizes. Style is not merely the form of the content; rather it is the point of mediation between form and content. When writers study style, they search for principles to unify their acts and interpretations. They study the way ideologies come to life in specific language situations. Style lives at the point where writers translate ideology into, as Kenneth Burke would say, symbolic acts. The two composition instructors together have developed a curriculum that they hope will highlight the culturally bound, conventional aspects of style. Writing curriculums might also be developed that would study various and contrasting discourse communities and communicative context. Kochman's "Black and White Styles in Conflict" could be used to focus on race as a window for studying language. (Includes the course description.) (TB)

Hinitz, B. F. and A. M. Stomfay-Stitz (1997). Cyberspace: A New Frontier for Peace Education.
This paper explores four dimensions of telecommunications as resources for peace education: (1) advocacy for special issues or concerns as a social action component; (2) enhancement for teaching peace education and conflict resolution; (3) links in cyberspace as an added dimension for partnerships and collaborative projects; and (4) expansion of expertise through technology and collegial contacts in other global centers. Evidence collected from several disciplines in a global search for projects, processes, and products could offer a blueprint for action for those in peace education. Survey results are shared on the attitudes of 50 peace educators throughout the world on the potential of telecommunications. (EH)

Hipel, K. W. and et al. (1988). "Hypergame Analysis of the Falkland--Malvinas Conflict." International Studies Quarterly 32(3): 335-58.
Presents a comprehensive framework for modeling a hypergame: a game in which one or more players have misperceptions about the true nature of a dispute. A new hypergame analysis algorithm is devised for executing stability analyses and the efficacy of this new approach is demonstrated in a discussion of the Falkland--Malvinas conflict of 1982. (Author/GEA)

Hively, R. E. (1990). The Lurking Evil: Racial and Ethnic Conflict on the College Campus AASCU Issues, American Association of State Colleges and Universities Washington D.C.: 135.
This publication represents the views of a group of university presidents who met on the White House grounds and at the National Capital to survey the rise in violence in all American universities and to assist in appraising and solving the pressing problems that arise from racial and ethnic tensions on the country's campuses. Titles and authors of individual papers include: "Spirit of a Campus" (Anthony Ceddia); "Washington Forum on Campus Violence: Some Points of View" (Robert Hess); "The College as a Racial Model for Society" (Jimmy Jenkins); "The Identification and Elimination of Subtle Forms of Discrimination on the College Campus" (John LaTourette); "Extinguishing at the Flashpoint" (Craig Willis); "A Case Study of the President's Role in Creating a Healthy Racial/Ethnic Climate" (Kenneth Shaw); "Recruitment of Underrepresented Faculty and Administrators" (James Rosser); "A Case Study: Campus Action and Video Film, 'Still Burning'" (Michael Hooker); "A Design for Diversity: Proactive Planning to Reduce Ethnic Tensions and to Enhance Human Resources" (Eugene Hughes); "Preventive Planning at the System Level" (Bruce Johnstone); "A Model: A University's Strategies and Actions from 'Sit-In' to Resolution" (Donald Gerth); "Strategies to Accommodate Change" (John Welty); "Ethnically and Racially Diverse Faculty: A Response to Change" (Dale Nitzschke et al.); "Suppression and Controls on American College Campuses" (David Tatel); "The First Amendment and Racial Harassment on Campus: A Selective Bibliography" (David Tatel et al.); and "Now Liberals Are Censors" (George Will). (JDD)

Hobbs, W. C. (1971). An Academic Dispute - Settlement Commission: A Proposal.
Because in academic controversy both judicial expertise and legal precedent are virtually nonexistent, an Academic Dispute- Settlement Commission is proposed. (IR)

Hobbs, W. C. (1974). "The "Defective Pressure-Cooker" Syndrome: Dispute Process in the University." Journal of Higher Education 45(8): 569-581.
The study reported examines the processes by which university disputes are waged over matters which go beyond policy alone. Typically, such conflicts are suppressed till they can no longer be contained, at which time they erupt with no institutional channels to direct their course. (Editor)

Hobson-Panico, P., L. Ahuna, et al. (1985). Can ombudsmen influence organization effectiveness through the practice of campus ecology?, Campus Ecologist.

Hocker, J. L. (1986). "Teacher-Student Confrontations." New Directions for Teaching and Learning (No. 26 (Communicating in College Classrooms) p71-82 Jun 1986).
Classrooms can serve as laboratories for experimenting with collaboration rather than win-lose conflict styles. Productive conflict tactics and patterns of interaction can be used for all parties to learn effective conflict management. (Author/MSE)

Hollander, P. (1980). "A Mediation Service for Administrators Regarding AAUA Standards." New Directions for Higher Education 8(4): 19-31.
The American Association of University Administrators (AAUA), an organization for administrators that offers a mediation service for resolving disputes concerning professional standards, is described. Causes of disputes, mediation procedures, users of AAUA's mediation service, selection of mediators, costs, reactions to the process, and mediation in the 1980s are discussed.

Hollander, P. A. (1980). "A Mediation Service for Administrators Regarding AAUA Standards." New Directions for Higher Education (No. 32 (Resolving Conflict in Higher Education) v8 n4 p19-31 1980).
The American Association of University Administrators (AAUA), an organization for administrators that offers a mediation service for resolving disputes concerning professional standards, is described. Causes of disputes, mediation procedures, users of AAUA's mediation service, selection of mediators, costs, reactions to the process, and mediation in the 1980s are discussed. (MLW)

Holton, S., Ed. (1995). Conflict Management in Higher Education. New Directions in Higher Education. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Holton, S. (1995). It's Nothing New! A History of Conflict in Higher Education. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 11-18.

Holton, S. (1995). How to Deal with Conflict in Higher Education. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 79-89.

Holton, S., Ed. (1998). Mending the Cracks in the Ivory Tower: Strategies for Conflict Management in Higher Education. Bolton, MA, Anker Publishing Company.
Faculty and administrators in higher education inevitably encounter conflict in their complex and challenging roles. With a particular focus on department chairs and deans, this edited volume helps analyze the many kinds of personal and institutional conflicts most commonly faced in higher education and provides the necessary tools and methods for conflict management and resolution. Contributors share their expertise with case studies, questions, examples, and strategies. This book shows how the proper management of conflict can improve working relationships, departments, and entire institutions.

Holton, S. and G. Philips (1995). Can't Live With Them, Can't Live Without Them: Faculty and Administrators in Conflict. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92.

Holton, S. and W. C. Warters (1995). Conflict Management Programs in the United States and Canada (Appendix). Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 97-122.

Holton, S. A. (1995). "And Now the Answers! How to Deal with Conflict in Higher Education."
It is argued that to deal with conflict effectively in a college or university, it is necessary to be aware of the structural relationships and antecedent conditions that cause it, and to watch for early signs of trouble. Seven levels of conflict are identified and strategies for resolution are suggested. The importance of early intervention is emphasized. (MSE)

Holton, S. A. (1999). After the eruption: Managing conflict in the classroom. Promoting civility: A teaching challenge. S. M. Richardson. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. 77: 59-68.
To manage conflict effectively, faculty need to be able to understand and analyze the problem and possible solutions. Conflict management involves problem identification, solution identification, and solution implementation.

Hurlbert, C. M. E. and S. E. Totten (1992). Social Issues in the English Classroom, National Council of Teachers of English Urbana Ill.: 357.
This book presents articles from 25 concerned teachers and professors explaining why and how they integrate inquiry into troubling social issues with the study of language and literature and make it the subject of discussion and writing- to-learn activities. The titles and authors of the 19 contributions to the book are: (1) "Educating for the Development of Social Consciousness and Social Responsibility" (Samuel Totten); (2) "Dismantling White/Male Supremacy" (Doris Davenport); (3) Dealing with Conflict: A Structured Cooperative Controversy Procedure" (Edythe Johnson Holubec and others); (4) "Cultivating Vision: The Believing Game" (Alan Shapiro); (5) "Learning To Be at Home: Oral Histories of a Black Community" (Carol Stumbo); (6) "Telecomputing and Social Action" (William Wright); (7) "Empowering the Voiceless To Preserve the Earth" (Daniel Zins); (8) "'Writing in the Margins': A Lesbian- and Gay-Inclusive Course" (Ellen Louise Hart with Sarah-Hope Parmeter); (9) "Public School and University Companeros: Changing Lives" (Debbie Bell); (10) "Ethnographic Writing for Critical Consciousness" (James Thomas Zebroski and Nancy Mack); (11) "A Ghostly Chorus: AIDS in the English Classroom" (M. Daphne Kutzer); (12) "Breaking the Silence: Addressing Homophobia with 'The Color Purple'" (Vincent A. Lankewish); (13) "Using 'Native Son' to Explore Language and Stereotype" (Jimmie Mason); (14) "Racism and the Marvelous Real" (Cecilia Rodriguez Milanes); (15) "'I'm Not a Poor Slave': Student-Generated Curricula and Race Relations" (John Tassoni and Gail Tayko); (16) "Rumors of Change: The Classroom, Our Classrooms, and Big Business" (C. Mark Hurlbert and Michael Blitz); (17) "Ethical Guidelines for Writing Assignments" (Sandra Stotsky); (18) "Textual Authority and the Role of Teachers as Public Intellectuals" (Henry A. Giroux); and (19) "Teaching, Feminism, and Social Change" (Kathleen Weiler). (RS)

Hurtado, S. (1992). "The Campus Racial Climate: Contexts of Conflict." Journal of Higher Education 63(5): 539-569.

Jacobs, G. and L. M. Ilola (1990). Disagreement Can Be Inviting: A Cooperative Learning Approach.
This paper presents a rationale for the compatibility of cooperative learning and invitational education. Invitational education focuses on how teachers can invite students to see themselves as able, valuable, and self-directing in an interactive group situation. Specifically, the rationale demonstrates how cooperatively structured disagreement can take place in an inviting manner. One method for structuring cooperative controversy is described and the findings from a limited research project on this method is summarized. A pilot study is reported in which college of education students participated in cooperative disagreement on a controversial topic in education. (JD)

Jameson, J. K. (1996). Diffusion of a Campus Innovation: Integration of a New Student Dispute Resolution Center into a University Culture. Conflict Studies: A New Generation of Ideas, UMass Boston.

Johnson, D. W., R. T. Johnson, et al. (1996). Academic controversy : enriching college instruction through intellectual conflict. Washington, DC, Graduate School of Education and Human Development George Washington University.

Johnson, S. (1996). Shared Interests: Conciliation/Mediation for Faculty and Staff at the University of Michigan (Report and evaluation of the pilot period), University of Michigan.

Jones, T. N. and G. H. Baldwin (1986). Legal and Managerial Aspects of Collective Negotiations, Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" looks at the law affecting collective bargaining by public employees (with particular emphasis on the schools), reviews the methods used to resolve disputes before and after agreements are signed, and considers the responses that management can make to issues raised during negotiation. The chapter first examines constitutional issues affecting government agencies as employers, the employer's duty to bargain, the role of the public labor relations board, legislative approval of agreements, and the distinction between "meeting and conferring" and true collective bargaining. Appropriate bargaining units at different educational levels and appropriate subjects for bargaining are considered next. The chapter then discusses breakdowns in the negotiation process and possible methods for resolving impasses, including mediation, fact-finding, arbitration, and other solutions. The resolution of disputes over employee grievances or management's rights is covered next. The chapter then turns to the management of collective bargaining from the district's perspective. Among the topics considered are the role of the school business administrator, changes in the negotiating environment, analysis of the long- and short-term costs and benefits of employee compensation packages, factors in salary administration, the costs of fringe benefits, and negotiation impasse resolution. Eighty-two footnotes are provided. (PGD)

Julius, D. J., J. Pfeffer, et al. (1999). "A Memo from Machiavelli." Journal of Higher Education 70(2): 113-33.
A fictitious memorandum from Niccolo Machiavelli, a 15th- century author, to college presidents, senior administrators, and faculty leaders seeking change in higher education offers suggestions for organizational development and governance in the form of ten rules and related change tactics. Topics addressed include integrity, team-building, dealing with conflict, strategic planning, use of committees, and decision follow-through. (MSE)

Julius, D. J. E. (1993). Managing the Industrial Labor Relations Process in Higher Education, College and Univ. Personnel Association Washington D.C.: 373.
This book contains 25 essays on the subject of industrial relations divided into the following parts: Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Context of Collective Bargaining in American Colleges and Universities" (Kenneth P. Mortimer); "Transformation of the U.S. Collective Bargaining System: The Impact on Higher Education" (James P. Begin); "Challenges to the Academy" (Irwin H. Polishook); "The Responsibilities of Trustees and Presidents" (David J. Figuli); "The Collective Bargaining Process and the Potential for Productive Outcomes" (Ray A. Howe); "The Importance of Establishing Bargaining Objectives" (Gary W. Wulf); "The Concept of Good Faith Bargaining and the Unilateral Implementation of Last Offer" (Nicholas DiGiovanni, Jr.); "Managing Faculty Employment Decisions: Making the System Accountable" (Barbara A. Lee); "Dispute Resolution: Making Effective Use of the Mediation of Collective Bargaining Disputes" (Ira B. Lobel); "Negotiating in an Anarchy: Faculty Collective Bargaining and Organizational Cognition" (Robert M. Birnbaum); "Effective Contract Administration" (Daniel J. Julius); "Guidelines for Handling Grievances at the Formal Level" (Jacob M. Samit); "The Preparation of Labor Arbitration Cases" (Nicholas DiGiovanni, Jr.); "How to Organize the Administration of a Multi-Campus System for Bargaining" (Caesar J. Naples); "Collective Bargaining with Public University Employees: Before and After Enabling Legislation" (Sandra L. Harrison); "Collective Bargaining for Employees of the State University of New York, an Effort at Labor/Management Cooperation" (Thomas M. Mannix); "The California Higher Education Employer- Employee Relations Act: The UC Experience 10 Years Later" (Gregory L. Kramp); "Collective Bargaining/Contract Administration for the Oregon Multi-Campus System of Higher Education" (Joseph Sicotte); "Evaluating the Causes and Consequences o