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Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors A-B)

Aaron, R. M. (1992). "Student Academic Dishonesty: Are collegiate insitutions addressing the issue?" NASPA Journal 29(2): 107-113.
This article summarizes the results of a survey of 257 chief student affairs officers at four-year private and public community colleges. Data are compiled on institutions with academic integrity codes and adjudication guidelines, the institutions methods for disseminating academic integrity information to students and to faculty, the institutional officer responsible for adjudicating acts of student academic dishonesty, and other institutional activities that address student academic integrity matters.

Academe Today (1998). Business Officers Honor 5 Universities for Cutting Costs. Academe Today: A News Service of the Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington D.C.

Alford, H. J., Wadsworth Publishing Company., et al. (1980). Power and conflict in continuing education : survival and prosperity for all? Belmont, CA, Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Allen, M. and M. Tollefson (1998). Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Examining the National Association of Scholars and Teachers for Democratic Culture Debate: 27.
This paper considers the ongoing debate between two organizations (National Association of Scholars and Teachers for a Democratic Culture) in higher education. The rhetorical positions of each side resemble those of the "cold war" between the United States and the Soviet Union of the 1950s and 1960s where each side created a mirror image of the other based on ethnocentric perceptions. While the image of cold war is a metaphor, the metaphor is developed and articulated by the use of images and stories that sustain the understanding of the conflict. A mirror image can develop when the parties in conflict believe that: (1) there are only two sides; (2) the conflict is zero-sum; and (3) their side is losing. When disagreeing bodies create a mirror image of the other side, a destructive cycle of rhetorical imagery is generated that prevents resolution of the conflict. (Contains a table with examples of mirror image rhetoric and 34 references.) (Author)

Altback, P., R. Laufer, et al., Eds. (1971). Academic Supermarkets: A Critical Case Study of a Multiversity. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Ambler, M. (1996). "Respect for Three Sovereigns." Tribal College 8(1): 8-11.
Discusses the lack of awareness of and respect for tribal governments in non-Indian society, arguing that mainstream educational institutions should include instruction about tribal governments and their powers in civics classes. Describes tribal models of dispute resolution, suggesting that they can also serve as models for the general society. (AJL)

Annunziato, F. (1995). From Conflict to Accord: Collective Bargaining at the Academy. Conflict Management in Higher Education. S. Holton. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. 92: 51-57.

Anonymous (1989). "Employment Disputes within Universities." Civil Justice Quarterly 8(April): 152-167.

Anonymous (1998). Racial Issues Prompt Protests on 4 Campuses. Chronicle of Higher Education: A8.

Antheil, J. H. (1985). Utilization-Focused Training Evaluation: a Comprehensive Training Evaluation Model Applied to University Resident Assistant Training, Temple University; 0225: 222.
The study presents a Model for Comprehensive Evaluation of Training illustrated through the evaluation of a university Resident Assistant (RA) training program. Following the evaluation illustration is an assessment of the usefulness of the Model as a guide for comprehensive, utilization-focused training evaluation. The study includes an extensive review of literature in the fields of educational and human service evaluation, with emphasis on qualitative evaluation methodology and utilization-optimizing evaluation procedures. Training evaluation which advocates multiple data levels is reviewed and current training evaluation practice in business and RA training is summarized. The Model for Comprehensive Evaluation of Training includes the following: (1) A pre-evaluation dialogue with evaluation users to identify evaluation goals, design data gathering strategies and establish procedures for the feedback of evaluation results. (2) Data gathering strategies which combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to portray the context of training by examining four data levels: trainee reaction, learning, performance, and the impact of the training within the sponsoring organization. (3) Communication of evaluation results to users, taking into consideration their information needs and encouraging joint evaluator-user interpretation of the data. The study includes (1) a description of pre-evaluation conversations with identified evaluation users, (2) a summary of thirteen data collection strategies including reaction scales, a training observation log, the RA Stress Inventory, mediation role-play analysis, an RA performance questionnaire, a sociometric on RA role perception, 3-month post-training interviews with RAs, and records on program events and on damage costs in the residence halls following training, and (3) an assessment of the usefulness of the data collection strategies by evaluation users with a summary of the utilization of evaluation findings in the 12 months following the training. The study concludes that the Model was extremely useful for structuring training evaluation and providing users with knowledge about training processes and results in a specific training context and about the fit of training with the culture of the sponsoring organization. The findings of the study have applicability in student personnel work, training evaluation for business and industry, and the general field of evaluation research.

Artman, C. and ABA Standing Committee on Dispute Resolution. (1997). Directory of law school alternative dispute resolution courses and programs : a directory of courses, clinics, professors, key contacts, course descriptions, and teaching methods in dispute resolution. Washington, D.C. (740 15th St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20005-1022), Section of Dispute Resolution American Bar Association.

Asbury, B. A. (1992). "Campus Life in a Time of Culture War." Soundings 75(4): 465-75.
The Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) chaplain describes and gives his perspective on a "culture war" on his campus arising from escalation of a religious conflict. The role of the chaplain in the modern university is examined. (MSE)

Austin, A. E. (1998). "Collegial conversation as metaphor and strategy for academic staff development." South African Journal of Higher Education 12(3).
Though the academy is dedicated to the exchange of ideas, academic staff find numerous barriers to such communication, such as departmental divisions and persistent time pressures. Recognizing this challenge, this article explores collegial conversation as both a metaphor for what staff development can involve and a strategy for implementing academic staff development. Metaphorically, the notion of collegial conversation suggests the importance of inquiry, dialogue, and connection as key elements of staff development. Moving the metaphorical image into practical application, the article describes six types of collegial conversations: Topical Lunch Seminars, Share Fairs, Colleague Partnerships, Career Stage Groups, Action Research Teaching/Learning Project Groups, and Department Chairperson Discussion Groups. Such collegial conversations contribute to capacity building for individuals, departments, and institutions.

Avery, M. (1990). "Mediation of Race-related Conflicts on Campus." Conciliation Quarterly 9(3): 5-7.

Bailey, S. K. (1971). Preparing Administrators for Conflict Resolution.

Baldridge, J. V., D. V. Curtis, et al. (1977). Alternative models of governance in higher education. Governing Academic Organizations. J. V. Baldridge and T. E. Deal. Berkeley, McCutchan Publishing: 2-25.

Baldridge, V. (1971). Power and Conflict in the University: Research in the Sociology of Complex Organizations. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Barnes, B. (1998). Designing a Conflict Resolution System for the University of Hawaii System: Economic Considerations and the Unionized Campus. Reflective Practice in Institutionalizing Conflict Resolution in Higher Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution.

Barnes, T. J. and D. E. Khorey (1989). "The Effects and Use of Administrative Determinations in Subsequent Employment Litigation." Journal of College and University Law 16(2): 189-200.
This article examines legal effects (e.g., res judicata and collateral estoppel) of various administrative arrangements for the resolution of employment disputes and offers suggestions on how legal representatives of colleges and universities can take advantage of these effects by planning and coordinating defense efforts. (Author/DB)

Barnett, V. M., Jr. Confrontation--Catalyst for Consensus: 14.
The main question discussed in this paper is whether the confrontations which have been taking place on college campuses these past few years provide the basis for a new consensus which will enable all to move forward with confidence and a renewed sense of achievement. In discussing these confrontations, however, several fallacies need to be dispelled: fallacy 1, disruptions typically occur at big, impersonal universities; fallacy 2, only a small percentage of students are involved; and fallacy 3, the Viet Nam war and the draft are basic causes of student unrest. The author feels that student radicals do not really wish to escape from authority, but rather that they badly need some authority which can be respected and in which they can place confidence. Young people also have a short time horizon, both looking backward and looking forward. They have a sense of urgency for the immediate as well as a growing disbelief in progress, or a growing disbelief in the gradual nature of progress. What is required from adults is neither indignant repression nor disgusted withdrawal, but constructive and patient efforts to respond on the campuses to the legitimate criticisms and to help restore an atmosphere in which there can be a more fully shared responsibility for the changes that need to be made. (KJ)

Barnett, V. M., Jr. (1969). Confrontation--Catalyst for Consensus. Boston, Association of College and University Housing Officers: 14.
The main question discussed in this paper is whether the confrontations which have been taking place on college campuses these past few years provide the basis for a new consensus which will enable all to move forward with confidence and a renewed sense of achievement. In discussing these confrontations, however, several fallacies need to be dispelled: fallacy 1, disruptions typically occur at big, impersonal universities; fallacy 2, only a small percentage of students are involved; and fallacy 3, the Viet Nam war and the draft are basic causes of student unrest. The author feels that student radicals do not really wish to escape from authority, but rather that they badly need some authority which can be respected and in which they can place confidence. Young people also have a short time horizon, both looking backward and looking forward. They have a sense of urgency for the immediate as well as a growing disbelief in progress, or a growing disbelief in the gradual nature of progress. What is required from adults is neither indignant repression nor disgusted withdrawal, but constructive and patient efforts to respond on the campuses to the legitimate criticisms and to help restore an atmosphere in which there can be a more fully shared responsibility for the changes that need to be made. (KJ)

Battaglini, D. J. and R. J. Schenkat (1987). Fostering Cognitive Development in College Students--The Perry and Toulmin Models. ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, Ill.
Intended for college instructors interested in promoting and developing intellectual abilities in their students, this publication details the Perry and Toulmin models of cognitive development. The first section explains the Perry model of dualistic students, who are comfortable in a framework of absolute knowledge and unquestionable right and wrong answers, multiplistic students, who recognize multiple perspectives but are unable to evaluate and weigh them adequately, and relativistic students, who are comfortable questioning authority and see knowledge as relative to their own frames of reference. A second section suggests implications of this model for classroom instruction, followed by a section providing information on how to find out more about the Perry model. A fourth section looks at the Toulmin model of cognitive development, which is characterized by a six-step system of rational argumentation, and how the model may be applied in the classroom. A final section notes that relativistic students are, by definition, working within the Toulmin model, and suggests that academic study demands that students work on a relativistic level. (JC)

Baur, E. J. (1983). College Curricula in Conflict Resolution, The Emergence of a Discipline.
It is argued that, while conflict regulation has typically been integrated into the college curriculum within a larger, subject-specific program, there is sufficient need and substance to warrant a formal curriculum. Some such interdisciplinary programs already exist. (MSE)

Bayer, A. E. and A. W. Astin (1969). Campus Disruption During 1968-1969, American Council on Education Washington D.C. Office of Research.: 48.
At the end of the 1968-1969 academic year, a survey was undertaken to determine the nature and extent of campus protests, how their frequency and types vary, how institutional responses to them differ, what institutional policies and practices have been changed because of them, and other related matters. The survey instrument was a questionnaire which collected data for the entire year on the mode and incidence of protests, major issues, results, consequences, and administrative changes made. The facts in this report represent the first attempt to link campus unrest with a variety of institutional characteristics (control, type, size, selectivity) using a representative national sample of 427 US colleges and universities. Study findings indicate that most institutions are attempting to respond in meaningful ways to major campus protests. Discipline has been a frequent response to violence; but major efforts have been made to modify curricula and racial policies, and to increase the freedom and power of students. The data also show that a majority of institutions, including those where major protests did not occur, made substantive changes in rules and policy during 1968 and 1969. One conclusion of the study is that US campuses, which have always been centers of protest and social criticism, are still likely to experience more unrest in years to come. The questionnaire and an analysis of the data are included. (WM)

Bean, J. P. (1976). The Use of Anthropological Field Methods as a Means for Conflict Reduction in Institutions of Higher Education: 18.
Anthropological field methods are viewed as a means of reducing the unanticipated consequences of decision-making in institutions of higher education. The conflict generated by the unanticipated consequences of decisions can be reduced by a better identification and a clearer understanding of the norms and values existing in the various subcultures of the institution. Anthropology is briefly described and compared to sociology and psychology, and some examples of anthropological thinking are given. The possible contribution of anthropological field methods to reducing the conflicts facing institutional researchers is examined. These conflicts include suboptimization, goal conflict, goal displacement, and internal conflict. Each is based to a certain extent on the idea that control of information is a kind of power, and that the power institutional researchers have will influence the future of higher education. (Author)

Bechler, C. (1995). "Looking Beyond the Immediate Crisis Response: Analyzing the Organizational Culture to Understand the Crisis." Journal of the Association for Communication Administration (JACA) 1(Jan): 1-17.
Presents an analysis of the organizational culture at Olivet College in Michigan. Discusses the legacy, roots, and history of the institution; the recent organizational history; and the changing nature of the organization at the time of a racial conflict in the spring of 1992 that gained both state and national attention. (SR)

Becker, T. L. E. and R. A. E. Couto (1996). Teaching Democracy by Being Democratic. Westport, CT, Praeger.
This volume links theory to practice by featuring tested techniques in teaching democracy by being democratic in the classroom. The book is divided into three parts and six chapters with an introduction presenting a theoretical and analytical framework of democracy and democratic pedagogy. Part 1 features "The Democratic Classroom" and includes (1) "Students in Charge" (William R. Caspary) and (2) "Personal Empowerment" (Louis Herman). Part 2, "Beyond Classrooms and Internships," contains (3) "Service Learning: Integrating Community Issues and the Curriculum" (Richard A. Couto) and (4) "Applying Democratic Theory in Community Organizations (Richard Guarasci; Craig A. Rimmerman). Part 3, "Innovative Democratic Institutions within the University," discusses (5) "The Community Mediation Service: A Model for Teaching Democracy and Conflict Resolution" (Christa Daryl Slaton) and (6) "Televote: Interactive, Participatory Polling" (Theodore L. Becker). The volume concludes with an afterword, a bibliography, and an index. (CB)

Beeler, K. D. (1985). Institutions with Identified Conflict-resolution (Mediation) programs. Charleston, IL, Eastern Illinois University.

Beeler, K. D. (1986). "Campus Mediation: A Promising Complement to Student Judicial Processes." SACSA Journal 7(1): 38-45.

Begin, J. P. (1980). "The Development of the Neutral Function in Labor Relations." New Directions for Higher Education 8(4): 81-89.
A review of the emergence of the neutral function in the context of collective bargaining to determine whether it might have application to higher education impasses of the l980s is outlined. A history of mediation and arbitration in labor disputes in the United States is provided.

Beitz, C. R. E. and et al. (1973). Peace Studies: College Courses on Peace and World Order, Institute for World Order, New York, N.Y.
The publication describes 30 college courses on peace and world order. The purpose is to provide a shared conception of the substantive concerns of peace studies, of the methodological tools available for peace research, and of the potential role of peace education in the formation of a more normative social science worldview. Courses described treat one of the following seven topics: (1) Conflict, Revolution, and Peace; (2) World Order; (3) World Politics; (4) The Third World: Perspectives on Development and Justice; (5) Looking Toward the Future; (6) Social Criticism and Individual Change; and (7) the United States Context. Bibliographies of resource materials are included with each course description. (Author/RM)

Benewitz, M. C. (1974). "A modest proposal for improving college arbitration." Arbitration journal 29(1): 43-49.
Disputes over tenure and academic fitness rank high among controversies in higher education. But arbitrators are often unable to deal substantively and adequately with such grievances because most of the collective bargaining contracts exclude academic qualtifications from the scope of their review powers. The author believes this circumstance requires reform, and his "modest proposal" is that pre-hearing conferences take place before a neutral person who would mediate disputes and screen out those that are not arbitrable or have no chance of success in conventional arbitration.

Bess, J. L. (1988). Leadership, Conflict Management, and Researcher Motivation and Productivity in Scientific R & D Laboratories: The Case of Japan ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper: 78.
A study on leadership, conflict management, research and development (R&D) worker motivation, commitment, and risk- taking propensity in universities compared with corporations and government is presented. It arose from the recognition that R&D in any developed country is critical to the continued well-being of its economy and people, and that university R&D management must continually be assessed. The three countries used in this study are Japan, the United States, and England, with focus on Japan. The following topics were examined: psychological characteristics of effective academic and industrial research leaders; styles of conflict management predominating in effective and ineffective leaders; impact of leader characteristics defined by the three independent variables on subordinate motivation and creativity; laboratory orientation; the market force effect on variables of interest; and leadership at the end of the project. Unlike the United States and England, education and industry are not closely articulated in Japan, and advanced education and training is largely relegated to on-the-job programs. In the United States individuality is tolerated and encouraged but in education, R&D is disadvantaged by its separation from industry. Four appendices include: demographic differences between corporations, universities, and government laboratories; leader attitudes and values; differences between sections rated high or low quality, and theoretical and policy implications. Contains about 175 references. (SM)

Biggs, D. A. and E. G. Williamson Conflict Resolution on the Campus: A Case Study.
Describes a campus conflict in hopes that information can help student personnel workers to assume a more effective role in conflict management. (Author/CJ)

Bing, R. and L. Dye (1992). "The Danger of Hierarchical Decision-Making." Academe 78(4): 16-18.
The case of a dispute over the college faculty promotion process is examined in the context of a model of the organization of campus governance. The model describes three levels of power relationships with increasing amounts of shared responsibility between faculty and administration. A commitment to partnership is advocated. (MSE)

Bing, R. and L. Dye (1996). "Memo to the board of trustees: please meddle." Academe 82(July/Aug): 44-45.
The writers argue that failure on the part of college boards of trustees to involve themselves in the internal affairs of colleges is an abdication of responsibility to the public or private authorities who appointed them. This failure to become involved has resulted in unbridled executive power by college presidents. An active, interested, and "meddlesome" board is a check and balance of power and management in academia. When boards refuse to intervene, there is no means to resolve conflicts between faculty and the college president. Boards can be important stimuli for both mediation and advocacy within their institutions, and, for this reason, they must try to perfect advocacy and consensual management if they are to change the negative national perception of higher education.

Birnbaum, R. (1980). "Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining." New Directions in Higher Education 32: 69-79.

Birnbaum, R. (1980). Creative Academic Bargaining: Managing Conflict in the Unionized College and University: 270.
The evolution of collective bargaining in higher education and factors that lead academic bargaining from destructive conflict to cooperation are examined. Academic bargaining is viewed as a form of shared authority, but one with unusual institutional and organizational problems that may lead toward destructive, rather than constructive conflict. The specific nature of the context, situation, and persons involved in bargaining, and their effect upon the nature of conflict are considered, as are perceptions, behaviors, and communication patterns that are likely to result when groups are locked into traditional bargaining structures. Behaviors and programs that may assist in conflict management and lead the parties toward more creative and constructive bargaining are suggested. A number of dispute resolution techniques that have been developed in industrial bargaining and their application in academic settings are described, as are changes in the traditional bargaining relationship that can be made prior to the initiation of bargaining, or during the bargaining interaction itself. Tactical considerations in creative bargaining, ways of increasing the problem-solving potential in the bargaining institution, the uses of third parties, and other approaches by which behaviors of the parties can change unilaterally to promote creative bargaining relationships are examined. References are included. (SW)

Birnbaum, R. (1980). Creative Academic Bargaining: Managing Conflict in the Unionized College and University.
The evolution of collective bargaining in higher education and factors that lead academic bargaining from destructive conflict to cooperation are examined. Academic bargaining is viewed as a form of shared authority, but one with unusual institutional and organizational problems that may lead toward destructive, rather than constructive conflict. The specific nature of the context, situation, and persons involved in bargaining, and their effect upon the nature of conflict are considered, as are perceptions, behaviors, and communication patterns that are likely to result when groups are locked into traditional bargaining structures. Behaviors and programs that may assist in conflict management and lead the parties toward more creative and constructive bargaining are suggested. A number of dispute resolution techniques that have been developed in industrial bargaining and their application in academic settings are described, as are changes in the traditional bargaining relationship that can be made prior to the initiation of bargaining, or during the bargaining interaction itself. Tactical considerations in creative bargaining, ways of increasing the problem-solving potential in the bargaining institution, the uses of third parties, and other approaches by which behaviors of the parties can change unilaterally to promote creative bargaining relationships are examined. References are included. (SW)

Birnbaum, R. (1983). How Neutrals Can Help Bargainers in Troubled Times.
The use of neutrals in higher education collective bargaining is considered, with specific reference to a pilot project in which a neutral worked for over a year with the administration and faculty union at a two-year public community college. Eighteen propositions that may promote the creative use of third parties are offered, including the following: neutrals can help the bargaining process only when both sides wish to improve their relationships and desire the use of a third party; a neutral can provide assistance, but parties must retain control of their bargaining relationship; a neutral can help parties collect and analyze data concerning their bargaining relationship to provide insight into the problems of their negotiations process and style; a neutral can help establish structures, such as workshops, in which bargaining parties can meet to discuss the nature of their relationship, and the changes that could improve it; neutrals can suggest new structures for bargaining that may help deal with complex issues; and involvement at the table by a neutral can be accepted as nonthreatening and supportive by the parties if it is focused on process and structure, rather than advocating specific substantive positions. (SW)

Birnbaum, R. (1984). "The Effects of a Neutral Third Party on Academic Bargaining Relationships and Campus Climate." Journal of Higher Education 55(6): 719-34.
A program of planned organizational change based on the interventions of a neutral third party used organizational development and dispute resolution techniques to alter the structure and process of academic negotiations. Analysis indicates that the interventions had no impact on campus climate but did significantly imnprove campus bargaining relationships. (Author/MLW)

Birnbaum, R. (1990). Negotiating in an Anarchy: Faculty Collective Bargaining and Organizational Cognition. Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, ASHE.

Birnbaum, R. and et al. (1985). Cooperation in Academic Negotiations: A Guide to Mutual Gains Bargaining, Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J. Inst. of Management and Labor Relations.
A guide to mutual gains bargaining (MGB) is presented for faculty union leaders and college administrators, as well as school systems. MGB is based on applied behavioral sciences concepts and the use of bargaining teams and emphasizes problem-solving and improving communications and campus relationships. Two different uses of the mutual gains concept are described: (1) work by a neutral third party on-campus to help renegotiate a contract and (2) a workshop with three unionized campuses. Theoretical bases for MGB are considered, with attention to intergroup competition and attribution, integrative bargaining and distributive bargaining, and intraorganizational bargaining. For each topic, a fictional dialogue at the negotiating table or in caucus is presented, followed by a nontechnical summary of theory, and exercises or simulations. This format is also used to introduce the following skills for MGB: problem-solving, issue control and fractionating conflict, organizing, and using dual-track governance. The Academic Bargaining Questionnaire is presented, along with information on use of the results, which help campus groups assess their bargaining relationship and ways to make bargaining more constructive. Finally, steps to implement MGB are covered. (SW)

Black, D. (1994). "Outside the Court: Mediating Conflicts." Perspective: The Campus Legal Monthly 9(10/October): 1-2.

Blimling, G. S. (1982). "The Context of Conflict in the Academy: An Educational Dialectic on Faculty and Student Affairs Educators." College Student Affairs Journal 13(1): 4-12.

Bloland, P. A. and D. B. Nowak (1968). The Ombudsman. An Informal Survey of the Implementation of the Ombudsman Concept, Summer, 1968, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
College and university response to the sense of anomie experienced by students --especially those attending large, complex institutions-- has been to implement several plans for reducing the students' feelings of impersonality and estrangement. In one of these plans, based on the "ombudsman" concept, students register complaints to 1 individual, who conducts an impartial investigation, reports to the appropriate authority, and makes other efforts to achieve desired results. An informal survey of Western colleges and universities was made in August, 1968 to ascertain to what extent this kind of plan has been utilized. Twenty-nine of the responding institutions had studied the concept, 24 had not, 9 had rejected it, and only 7 had some form of ombudsman program. Student and staff reactions to the program ranged from neutral to positive. Of the 29 institutions that had studied the concept, 20 had student bodies of more than 5,000 FTE (Full-Time Equivalent), and 16 of the 24 that had not considered such a program had student bodies of less than 5,000 FTE. Survey results suggest that requirements unique to the institution involved determine the appropriateness of the ombudsman idea. Due to a number of factors, larger state- supported institutions tend to consider the concept much sooner than small state or privately-supported institutions. The report contains a list of the 53 responding institutions, and selected data collected during the survey. (WM)

Boice, R. (1996). "Classroom Incivilities." Research in Higher Education 37(4): 453-487.

Bolding, J. T. and J. J. Van Patten (1982). "Creating a Healthy Organizational Climate." Administrator's Update: American Association of Univ. Administrators 3(3 (Win)): 1-9.
ABSTRACT: Four areas of college management responsibility are reviewed: the mission of the organization; administrator/faculty relationship; individual stress; and measuring organizational health. According to Argyris (1980) an organization updates its goals (1) as a consequence of detecting and solving routine problems, and (2) through periodical reexamination of the governing policies and values of the organization. A survey of higher education professional organizations (Boulding and Van Patten, 1980) indicates that six of the top seven faculty concerns dealt with a lack of humaneness and justice within the organization. Ways to improve administrator/staff relationships include encouraging bona fide, responsible dissent and allowing faculty representation in governance. The effectiveness of collective negotiations depends on the good will and overall consensus of all groups involved in campus governance. The following types of individual stress are addressed: burnout, role conflict, peer cohesiveness, and general morale. Signs of psychological burnout are a signal that the organization is causing problems. Faculty members are not always able to cope effectively with organizational politics. Research identifies role conflict and role ambiguity as principal sources of organizational stress (Parasuraman and Allutto, 1981). Latham and Kinne (1974) found that individuals in a healthy organization find satisfaction in working together to accomplish shared goals. Four important leadership skills to facilitate peer cohesiveness are identified, including mediating conflict and building networks. Approaches that have been used to maintain and improve morale include human potential seminars and the holistic health movement. Organizational types identified by Likert (1961) and research on the measurement of organizational health are noted. (SW)

Bompey, S. H. and R. E. Witten (1980). "Settlement of Title VII Disputes: Shifting Patterns in a Changing World." Journal of College and University Law 6(4): 317-43.
An overview is given of the mechanics of dispute resolution under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Described and analyzed are the various stages during the processing of a dispute when settlement is possible. The effects of Bakke and Weber decisions on the process are considered. (MSE)

Borland, D. T. (1976). "Employee Relations Without Collective Bargaining." Journal of the College and University Personnel Association 27(2 Apr-May): 35-9.
While administrative personnel in many institutions are interested in specific bargaining techniques or validated grievance procedures, the author suggests that the vast majority need current information about personnel matters before collective bargaining becomes a reality on their campuses. (LBH)

Borshuk, C. (1994). "Benefits of a Peer Mediation Service: An Evaluation." Interaction 6(1): Supplement p. 4.
Outlines a model for evaluating university-based mediation service. To look at impact on broader community and changes in mediator and disputant self-perception.

Borshuk, C. (1995). "Peer Mediation Changes Volunteers." Interaction 7(1): 9.

Borski, B. (1995). "Implementing Controversial Programs on College Campuses." Campus Activities Programming 28(1): 28-32.
This article argues that college students and administrators rely on campus activities professionals to make informed, objective decisions about campus events and that this represents a challenge to present controversial programs to meet student developmental and educational needs. Professionals are urged to be prepared to justify such programs. Planning suggestions are offered. (MSE)

Boskey, J. (1995). "Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Law Schools." The Fourth R 55(Feb/March).

Bosworth, K. (1994). "Developing Collaborative Skills in College Students." New Directions for Teaching and Learning (n59 p25-31 Fall 1994).
Social skills needed for effective collaborative learning by college students are discussed, including skills in interpersonal interaction, group building and management, inquiry, conflict resolution, and synthesis and presentation. Five instructional strategies to enhance students' collaborative skills are described: identification, demonstration, modeling, performance feedback, and reflection. (MSE)

Bowser, B., G. Auletta, et al. (1993). Dealing with conflict and diversity in the academic community. Confronting diversity issues on campus. Newbury Park, Sage: 59-78.

Boyer, E. (1990). Campus Life: In Search of Community. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.

Bradshaw, D. (1993). Implementation of the University Mediation Service at the University of Manitoba, University of Manitoba.

Brickman, W. and S. Lehrer, Eds. (1970). Conflict and Change on Campus: The Response to Student Hyperactivism. New York, School and Society Books.

Brown, L. F. (1993). Conflict resolution and the ombudsman : a bibliography on the ombudsman concept in the corporate, university and medical environments. New York (140 W. 51th St., New York 10020-1203), Library and Information Center on the Resolution of Disputes American Arbitration Association.

Brown, T. L. (1985). "University-Industry Relations: Is There a Conflict?" Journal of the Society of Research Administrators 17(2): 7-17.
The forms of university-industry relationships, the advantages to the various parties involved, and the potential conflicts and tensions are outlined. Some guidelines for finding solutions and new modes of interaction are suggested. (MSE)

Burkhardt, J. (1994). "Getting to Yes on a Merger." Planning for Higher Education 22(3): 19-24.
The merger of the University of Detroit and Mercy College (Michigan) is chronicled from early conversations through preparation and decision making. Salient issues that had to be addressed, especially persistent conflicts, and lessons learned from the experience are noted. (MSE)

Burnett, C. W. and W. L. Matthews, Jr. (1982). "The Legalistic Culture in American Higher Education." College and University 57(2): 197-207.
A legalistic culture has become a part of the academic community of the 1980s. Possible explanations include: what happens in the larger society is reflected in the academic subsystem, a legalistic syndrome, impact of state and federal governments, widening scope of university service, tight academic job market, efforts to democratize academe, conflicts in role perceptions, collective bargaining, and increased costs. (MSE)

Burns, R. and T. Weber (1995). Gandhi and Freire on Campus: Theory and Practice in Tertiary Peace Studies Programs. Peace Education Miniprints No. 76, Lund Univ. (Sweden). Malmo School of Education.
Over the past 20 years, the formal study of peace at universities and colleges has become an option available to many students. The development of such peace studies programs is diverse. There are a variety of theoretical and ideological/philosophical approaches to peace. However, how to develop a course that is theory-based, and to compare different theoretical orientations, has not been explored a great deal. Taking up that challenge, this paper looks at two instructors who have been responsible for a peace studies program, one through taking on and transforming an existing interdisciplinary undergraduate course and the other through developing a peace education course within a graduate education program. The ideas that inspired each educator are presented. Paulo Freire and Mahatma Gandhi, whose work for justice and social change, are featured. This paper finds that a dialogue that develops the ideas, key concepts, analyses, and actions of Gandhi and Freire (within contemporary settings, and with appropriate learning processes) provides a basis for a peace studies or peace education program. (RJC)

Burnside, C. (1995). "Coping with Conflict in the Workplace." TCCTA (Texas Community College Teachers Association) Messenger(December).

Burrell, N. and D. Cahn (1994). Mediating Peer Conflicts in Education Contexts: The Maintenance of School Relationships. Conflict in Personal Relationships. D. Cahn. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 79-94.
This article addresses mediation work at all levels of the education system, including the college experience. The primary example used is the mediation program started in 1983 at SUNY New Paltz. Gives example of a campus mediation training design.

Bush, R. A. B. (1987). "Using Process Observation to Teach Alternative Dispute Resolution: Alternatives to Simulation." Journal of Legal Education 37(1): 46-57.
A method of teaching alternative dispute resolution (ADR) involves sending students to observe actual ADR sessions, by agreement with the agencies conducting them, and then analyzing the students' observations in focused discussions to improve student insight and understanding of the processes involved. (MSE)