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Higher Ed Bibliography (Authors C-D)

Cahn, D., Ed. (1994). Conflict in Personal Relationships. Hillsdale NJ, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Caliguri, J. P. and et al. (1984). Bureaucratic versus Loose Coupling Governance: Ownership or Chaos in Managing Conflict?: 16.
The first section of this document relates a case involving governance problems at a private education institution. The second section gives teaching notes for the use of this case in any course focusing on leadership, organizational governance, or general management or in various topical courses. In the case recounted, an institution recognized for its collegial governance and administrative team leadership began to experience management and financial problems. To deal with these problems, the Board of Governors decided to create the position of president. The first president resigned after a year; the second resigned before the end of his first year. A team of three university professors was requested by the board chairman to evaluate the second president's performance; documents were analyzed, institutional assessment interviews with the president and administrators were conducted, and recommendations to the board and its constituents were presented. The issues that emerged were related to the differing governance philosophies and leadership styles that produced conflict among the institutional participants. The teaching notes give guidelines on the teaching objectives of the case, the position of the case in the course, assignment questions, and discussion strategies. An analysis of the issues involved is also provided. Five references are listed. (DCS)

Cameron, K. S. and D. A. Whetton (1985). "Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education." Review of Higher Education 9(1): 35-49.

Campbell, E. S. (1991). The Impact of Three Forms of Mediation Training and Practice On University Students' Use of Conflict Frames, The Ohio State University; 0168: 220.
This study investigated whether or not students could be trained to view conflict, which necessitated the intervention of a third party, in a way which supported the use of mediation, rather than arbitration or litigation. A quasi-experimental design using a pretest- posttest data collection technique was used to compare the results obtained from four samples of students which received different types of mediation training. The four types of mediation training can be described as: (1) a twelve hour mediation training course combining lectures, discussion and role plays, (2) a twelve hour course on mediation plus the opportunity to act as a mediator, (3) a twelve hour course on mediation plus the opportunity to mediate real conflicts, and (4) a ten week academic course on "conflict resolution". Students were asked to complete a series of questionnaires which contained hypothetical dispute scenarios. Student responses were coded as "choice" frames (desired third party to decide how to resolve the conflict) or "negotiation" frames (desired third party to help the disputants come up with a solution to the conflict). The changes from "choice" frames to "negotiation" frames were tested after the administration of each training. The sample sizes in this study were too small to achieve statistical significance. However, the results suggest that it is very difficult to teach students to use a "negotiation" frame if they are predisposed to using a "choice" frame. There was a slight increase in the overall number of students who used "negotiation" frames after attending either the academic course or the twelve hour mediation session. There was a greater increase in the number of students who used "negotiation" responses after mediating real conflicts. The study suggests that education and training alone are not very effective in motivating students to change from "choice" frames to "negotiation" frames. As a corollary, the confidence levels which students had in a third party being able to either impose a successful solution or help the disputants find a satisfactory solution were measured. The results indicated that students trained in mediation lost confidence in mediation being able to successfully resolve disputes.

Caraway, G. A. (1989). "Grievance Mediation: Is it worth using?" Journal of Law and Education 18(4): 495-502.

Carlton, J. (1993). "Working It Out (Construction Partnering Sessions)." Successful Meetings 42(12): 102-107.
The typical partnering session lasts just 2 days, with up to 16 hours of group counseling, and costs between $6000 and $12,000. The process has proven to be effective in mediating conflicts before they arise on construction jobs. Among contractors, testimonials abound for how well partnering works. Partnering seeks to provide trust and open communication in the relationship between participants. A partnering session held over a construction job at a California college is discussed. The opposing factions come together and work out resolutions to their problems, and avoid suing each other and the school.

Carmichael, G. and M. Malague (1996). How To Resolve Conflicts Effectively.
Conflict resolution at community colleges or other organizations requires an analysis of four situational factors: the conflict issues, the organizational setting, hierarchy and role relationships, and the personal styles of the conflicting parties. These factors yield insight into the dynamics of the conflict and provide the groundwork for ethical and productive conflict management. The identification of the issues surrounding conflicts should arise from dialogue with conflicting parties, ideally leading to the development of a shared view. Since every organization has unique rules, traditions, values, and assumptions, the organizational setting must be considered. At community colleges, for example, shared values such as the fulfillment of student goals, enhancement of learning, and support or cooperation in the workplace may provide deans with criteria for making decisions in conflict situations. While the assumption often exists that power to resolve a conflict situation lies within the formal hierarchy of an institution, at community colleges the hierarchical structure only applies within limited realms, with faculty having different roles and authority than department chairs. Finally, deans and chairs should be aware of the different approaches, or styles, that individuals take in conflict situations, including competition, collaboration, compromise, accommodation, and avoidance. Understanding the elements of conflict can help administrators adopt clear strategies for its resolution. (TGI)

Casper, G. (1998). State of University Address. Stanford Report Online Update. Palo Alto, CA.

Cavenagh, T. D. (1994). Alternative Dispute Resolution on Campus: Moving Beyond the Traditional Judicial Affairs Model. Legal Issues in Higher Education Conference, University of Vermont, North Central College Dispute Resolution Center.

Cavenagh, T. D. (1995). "Community Building Through Effective Conflict Resolution: The North Central College Dispute Resolution Center." Higher Education Extension Service Review (Online) 6(5/15/95).

Chandler, M. (1985). "Dispute Resolution in the Year 2000." Journal of the College and University Personnel Association 36(2): 16-20.
The dominant faculty dispute resolution process will continue to be negotiation between parties, but mediation will increase. Problem-solving by labor-management committees and similar groups, and compulsary interest arbitration, will remain limited. Grievance mediation, although gaining in interest, will not overtake binding grievance arbitration.

Chandler, M. K. (1985). "Dispute Resolution in the Year 2000." Journal of the College and University Personnel Association 36(2): 16-20.
The dominant faculty dispute resolution process will continue to be negotiation between parties, but mediation will increase. Problem solving by labor-management committees and similar groups, and compulsory interest arbitration, will remain limited. Grievance mediation, although gaining in interest, will not overtake binding grievance arbitration. (MSE)

Chaney, A. C. B. (1982). How to establish a campus ombudsman: 16.

Clark, B. R. (1983). Values in Higher Education: Conflict and Accommodation The Wilson Lecture Series, Lecture Two, Arizona Univ. Tucson. Center for the Study of Higher Education.: 28.
Basic values in higher education and the way that values are made operational are discussed in an article and three responses to the article. Conflicts among values in American higher education and the structures of accommodation are also addressed. In addition to valuing liberal arts studies, professional education, and research, competence in these pursuits is highly valued. Achieving equality and equity for students and staff is also desired, and another set of values links together choice, initiative, innovation, criticism, and variety. Expectations of individuality and self-expression are also raised by democratic values. Finally, there is always a body of interests that pertain to the operation of the state, particular regions, and the nation as a whole. The structures of accommodation that abate conflict among contradictory values are many, within and among institutions. It is concluded that in the long run it is the structures of work and authority in higher education that largely determine who does what to whom, and what matters most about any structure are the values and principles it embodies. Structures can be studied at the level of national policy, state systems, and sectors. Brief responses to the article are provided by Hermann K. Bleibtreu, Charles E. Davis, and Fred F. Harcleroad. (SW)

Clark, B. T. E. (1981). Arbitration in American Higher Education.
Areas of concern related to grievance arbitration in higher education are examined. Selected arbitration awards, court and National Labor Relation Board rulings, and related literature are reviewed, and probable patterns and trends in arbitration are identified. Potential conflicts between collective bargaining and collegiality (self-governance) include: the variety of institutional types and variations in tenure systems, governance patterns and policies, and institutional missions; the fact that bargaining is essentially a bipartisan system while usual institutional governance processes almost always involve more than two parties; and the difficulty in identifying and defining the employer for the purpose of bargaining. Grievance procedures constitute the method by which disputes concerning application and/or interpretation of collective bargaining agreements are resolved. A review of selected arbitration awards indicates that most cases fall into the following classifications: tenure, promotion, appointment/reappointment, due process, compensation, challenge to arbitrability, work assignment/evaluation procedure, and sex discrimination. Much of the law dealing with the question of arbitrability has been shaped by what has been considered to be mandatory (wages, hours, working conditions); illegal (subjects the public employee is prohibited from discussing); and permissive (subjects that the parties are free to negotiate, including class size and teaching methods). It is suggested that grievance arbitration may provide a more efficient means of conflict resolution than litigation. Rulings and court cases are annotated and a bibliography is appended. (SW)

Clark, T. M. (1990). "The University of Wyoming Textbook Investigation: From Controversy to Academic Freedom." OAH Magazine of History 4(4): 56-60.
This student paper, a first place winner in the 1987 National History Day competition, relates events of the first college textbook controversy in the United States. In 1947, University of Wyoming trustees authorized reviewing textbooks for "subversive tendencies." Faculty and trustees successfully negotiated the controversy, resulting in academic freedom policies still in effect. (CH)

Cloke, K. (1988). "Date Rape and the Limits of Mediation." Mediation Quarterly(Case Studies in Family Mediation): 77-83.

Clower, J. and G. C. Goodwin (1982). "A Theory of Organizational Behavior Applied to College Housing." College Student Journal 16(1): 73-76.
Explains a conceptual model by Chris Argyris dealing with organizational conflict. Applies the theory to college residence halls. Suggests that resident assistants need more responsibility and authority. Urges that they be allowed more input into housing policy in order to improve living conditions and student satisfaction. (Author/JAC)

Cole, E. K. (1994). Selected Legal Issues Relating to Due Process and Liability in Higher Education, Council of Graduate Schools Washington DC.: 45.
This booklet discusses due process for institutions of higher education and how principles of due process should shape the design of institutional procedures for resolution of conflicts affecting students, faculty, academic programs, and research. The booklet defines and explains various area of conflict, the role of due process, and key legal decisions that have established accepted practice or have recently changed traditional practice. Section I is an introduction. Section II defines and explains due process as an important legal concept which should be incorporated into institutional procedures for situations that may not ever be brought to court. Section III discusses the evaluation of student academic performance. Section IV covers student misconduct related and unrelated to academic performance. Section V covers difficult or troubled students. Section VI looks at admissions fraud. Section VII handles firing or discipline of faculty or other employees. Section VIII covers three special issues: scientific misconduct, sexual harassment, hate speech, and student record privacy. Section IX discusses liability for institutions and administration or staff. Section X is a conclusion and Section XI offers a checklist for minimizing academic legal problems. Contains 54 references. (JB)

Coleman, M. and et al. (1971). Is Conflict Utilization Underestimated?, Pittsburgh Univ. Pa. University Urban Interface Program.: 37.
This document, one of several prepared by the University Urban Interface Program at the University of Pittsburgh, deals with the nature and solution of conflict within the environment. Many professionally trained managers are ill-prepared to deal with conflict in their environment. They often do not see it as a part of their managerial function. It is the contention of this paper that the management of conflict can and should be taught in a formal curriculum aimed at the preparation of managers. The paper is organized into 6 sections. The first section presents a new definition of organizations that incorporates conflict possibilities, thereby changing the manager's expectations about his role. In section 2 current definitions of conflict are examined to see what they offer by way of assistance to the manager in identifying and coping with conflict, and in section 3 areas of conflict are identified. Pittsburgh as a setting for conflict is examined and brief conflict examples are cited in the fourth section. In section 5 a rationale is provided for the University to assume a role in the education of managers in the utilization of conflict, and the final section presents a proposed curriculum model for this type of education (HS)

Collier, K. G. (1984). Higher Education as Preparation for the Handling of Controversial Issues.
Higher education focuses largely on acquisition of knowledge and development of skills of rigorous argument, rarely giving attention to subjective perceptions or subjective value assumptions, in either the parties of a controversy or the student himself. Elements of the college curriculum, when properly developed, can help students identify subjective factors. (MSE)

Collision, M. (1990). Negotiation, Not Violence, Is the Rule Today When Students Clash With Administrators. The Chronicle of Higher Education: 30-32, 44.

Conciatore, J. (1989). "Resolution of campus conflict takes on scientific approach." Black issues in higher ed.(November 23): 14-15.

Conlin, E., K. Emlaw, et al. (1986). Directory of law school dispute resolution courses and programs : a directory of courses, clinics, professors, key contacts, sample course descriptions, and teaching methods in dispute resolution. Washington, DC, American Bar Association Standing Committe[e] on Dispute Resolution.

Conlon, D. E. (1989). "Using Computer Simulations of Negotiation for Educational and Research Purposes in Business Schools." Education and Computing 5(3): 173-80.
Discussion of educational and research advantages of using computer-based experimental simulations for the study of negotiation and dispute resolution in business schools focuses on two studies of undergraduates that used simulation exercises. The influence of time pressure on mediation is examined, and differences in student behavior are observed. (19 references) (LRW)

Cooley, F. E. (1994). "Facilitating conflict-laden issues: An important extension faculty role." J. of Extension 32(1).

Cooper, J. and K. Kempner (1991). Lord of the Flies Community College: A Case Study of Organizational Disintegration. Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Boston, MA, ERIC.

COPRED (1995). The Global Directory of Peace Studies Programs (1995-96). Fairfax, VA, Consortium On Peace Research, Education And Development.
Compiled by COPRED staff and in its second edition, this is a comprehensive annotated guide to peace and conflict resolution programs in college and universities. The current edition profiles 350 undergraduate, Master's and Doctoral programs and concentrations in the United States and worldwide. Each entry describes the program's philosophy and goals, faculty credentials, key course requirements, student body composition and internship possibilities. Includes easy-to-use indices by state, country, affiliation and type of degree.

Corrigan, R. and J. Stevens (1995). "Diversity, Public Perception, and Institutional Voice." Liberal Education 81(2): 20-31.
In the context of a recent controversy over a mural at San Francisco State University (California), the president comments on several issues, including campus multiculturalism and racial issues, conflict resolution, public expectations of a university, and institutional leadership and responsibility in handling the controversy, both on and off campus. (MSE)

Covey, M. K. (1983). Relationship between Social Skill and Conflict Resolution Tactics.
Although the importance of social skill to interactions with others has long been recognized for clinical individuals, such skills are also of benefit to non-clinical populations. To investigate the potential relationships between social skill and interpersonal conflict resolution tactics, 287 college students (140 males and 147 females) completed a measure of general social skill, the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS), and a measure of tactics used during conflict situations, the Conflict-Tactics Scale (CTS). The SPSS is a 5- point rating scale of 100 items, resulting in a full-measure score of total social skill. The CTS is also a 5-point scale which has been factor-analyzed to produce subscale scores in Reasoning, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Violence. An analysis of the results revealed a high correlation between social skill and the use of verbal reasoning in the resolution of conflicts, thus implying social skill involves the use of non-aversive behaviors. Social skill was correlated negatively with verbal aggression and physical violence. Social skill was also found to influence the behavior of others, i.e., high social skills elicited reasoning, and reduced verbal aggression and violence in others. Socially skilled males used less verbal aggression and physical violence than unskilled males. Additional research should address causal relationships between social skill and specific behaviors in interactional contexts. (BL)

Cowher, S. J. (1996). "A Power Development Model for Managing and Preventing Conflict." Guidance & Counselling 11(4): 18-22.
Describes a model for understanding and applying conflict management strategies using a personal power development theory. Adds conflict management styles to this theory to address the growing need for effective conflict management in higher education. Explains the approaches to conflict in each stage of the model and provides a case study. (RJM)

Cowley, W. H. (1960). Three Curricular Conflicts: 19.
At his inauguration people hail every neophyte college president as the institution's new leader and ring the changes of the importance of leadership. Some, however, never become leaders because of a fact not often emphasized: they cannot successfully handle the conflicts that inevitably come to their offices. Among the conflicts that every college president must mediate, those relating to the curriculum stand highest in significance and create more emotion than those in any other area of his concern except, perhaps, those having to do with academic freedom. Three curricular conflicts with which every president must deal, at one time or another, arise from the divergent claims of: (1) general and specialized education; (2) the humanities and the sciences; and (3) teaching and research. Each must be placed in its socio- historical context, even considering the colonial colleges and the changes wrought during the last half of the eighteenth century. (Author/MSE)

Cowley, W. H. (1980). Presidents, Professors, and Trustees. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Crohn, M. (1985). "Dispute Resolution and Higher Education." Negotiation Journal 1(4): 301-305.

Crookston, B. B. and J. M. Carlson (1971). Third Party Mediation in Campus Disputes.
The purpose of this article is to examine some roles that could be played by a third party in the mediation of campus disputes. Discussed are conditions for effective mediation, mediation procedures, intervention strategies, and the outside mediator. (Author/CJ)

Crookston, R. K. and et al. (1993). "The Worth of a Sparrow: A Decision Case in University Research and Public Relations."
The University of Minnesota trapped and killed birds to reduce bird damage to research grain plots. When the Animal Rights Coalition demanded the practice be stopped, the situation became a public controversy. Presents an abridged form of this case as a focus for consideration of research methods, interest group agenda, and the universities' role in representing the public. (MDH)

Crosser, S. (1996). "Do You Know How I Feel? Empathy and the Young Child." Early Childhood News 8(2): 21-23.
Focuses on ways caregivers can promote the development of empathy in young children. Discusses the role of empathy in moral development, how empathy develops, and the influence of genetics and experience. Suggests that to promote development of empathy in children, teachers can model caring behaviors, name and interpret emotions, role play helpful behaviors, be supportive, and teach conflict resolution. (TJQ)

Crunkleton, M. A. (1991). "The Flight to Community: Pluralism, Democracy, and Higher Education." Liberal Education 77(1 Jan-Feb): 8-11.
As college students become more diverse, there is more conflict on campus. Elements in these conflicts include confusion about the concept of equality, the idea that difference entails opposition, and the assumption that a particular set of human characteristics is fundamentally better than another. Commitment to diversity is commitment to increased knowledge. (MSE)

Cunningham, P. J. (1984). "Taking the Conflict Out of Grievance Handling." The Journal of the College and University Personnel Association 35(Summer): 8-11.

Cupach, W. R. (1982). Communication Satisfaction and Interpersonal Solidarity as Outcomes of Conflict Message Strategy Use.
A study investigated the relationships between conflict message strategy utilization and the criterion variables of communication satisfaction and interpersonal solidarity in situations of interpersonal conflict. Subjects were 114 college students and their "willing" conversational partners. Each subject completed a questionnaire concerning a conflict he or she had had with the conversational partner, an interpersonal conflict tactics and strategies scale, an interpersonal communication satisfaction inventory, and an interpersonal solidarity scale. Analysis of the data revealed that the use of constructive message strategies in interpersonal conflict tended to produce positive affective outcomes--specifically, interpersonal communication satisfaction and interpersonal solidarity. By the same token, the use of destructive or avoidance conflict message strategies was significantly less likely to yield satisfaction and solidarity, and might even have inhibited such outcomes. (FL)

Curle, A. (1980). "Peace Studies in Universities." World Studies Journal 1(4): 5-11.
Defines peace studies from various points of view, identifies problems often encountered in setting up peace studies programs, presents examples of the kinds of issues which might be studied in peace studies programs, and suggests activities appropriate for students of peace studies. Journal available from World Studies Resource Center, Groby College, Ratby Road, Leicestershire, England. (DB)

D'Errico, P., E. Katsh, et al. (1980). "Legal Studies and Mediation." New Directions for Higher Education 8(4): 48-55.
The dispute resolution center at the University of Massachusetts illustrates how a legal studies program can form the basis for conflict resolution in the local community as well as on campus. The center draws heavily on the skills and experience of individuals in both the academic and public sectors.

Danielson, L. E. and S. K. Garber (1994). Use of ADR in Extension Public Policy Education Programs and Roles Extension Can Play in Dispute Resolution. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993.
The extension educator in public policy education and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has many roles from which to choose. These include information provider, technical advisor, convener, facilitator and program developer. The increased importance of issues programming and the increased priority given to measurement of results are creating additional pressures on educators to take a "resolution-of-the-issue" approach toward public policy education. Extension public policy educators can respond by incorporating concepts and techniques from dispute resolution into their ongoing public policy education programs. This may involve an expansion of the group facilitation role to include issue facilitation (citizen participation, interest-based negotiation and consensus building) and adding the roles of promoter of dispute resolution and mediator. This change will require increased training on facilitation and mediation skills, provision of new teaching materials, and increased support from extension administration. This document contains short descriptions of 15 extension programs and activities on facilitation and dispute resolution. (KS)

Danielson, L. E. and S. K. Garber (1994). Use of ADR in Extension Public Policy Education Programs and Roles Extension Can Play in Dispute Resolution.
The extension educator in public policy education and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has many roles from which to choose. These include information provider, technical advisor, convener, facilitator and program developer. The increased importance of issues programming and the increased priority given to measurement of results are creating additional pressures on educators to take a "resolution-of-the- issue" approach toward public policy education. Extension public policy educators can respond by incorporating concepts and techniques from dispute resolution into their ongoing public policy education programs. This may involve an expansion of the group facilitation role to include issue facilitation (citizen participation, interest-based negotiation and consensus building) and adding the roles of promoter of dispute resolution and mediator. This change will require increased training on facilitation and mediation skills, provision of new teaching materials, and increased support from extension administration. This document contains short descriptions of 15 extension programs and activities on facilitation and dispute resolution. (KS)

Dannells, M. (1991). "Changes in Student Misconduct and Institutional Response Over 10 Years." Journal of College Student Development 32: 166-170.
The author reports the results of a longitudinal study of changes in student misconduct cases and institutional response over ten years, comparing the results of two national surveys in such areas as incidence of disciplinary cases, sanctions, and rehabilitative actions.

Davis, B. A. and S. V. Corley (1996). Rockin' Role Plays: A Collection of the Finest for Mediation Trainers, Mediation Center Asheville NC.: 208.
This guide offers suggestions for implementing role plays to teach conflict resolution skills and provides a variety of role plays useful in different settings. It describes how to effectively prepare for role plays, how to implement role play strategies, and how to debrief and provide feedback to role play participants. Potential problems are identified and the guide provides suggestions for overcoming potential difficulties while using role plays. The role plays focus on a variety of settings such as the community, business, day care, elementary school, middle and high school, college and university, juvenile detention center, hospital, nursing home, and family. Six court cases that focus on a conflict or problem that may be used in a role play are included. A list of publications available from the Mediation Center and an alphabetical index of role plays are also included. (TSV)

Day, C. W. (1985). "Architect-School Client Conflicts: Project Construction." School Business Affairs 51(8): 26.
Five major sources of construction disputes between architects and school clients are (1) errors, defects, or omissions in the contract documents; (2) cost-related problems; (3) changed conditions; (4) consumer reaction; and (5) interpersonal relationships. A clear understanding of each party's role is necessary to eliminate these conflicts. (MLF)

de Berly, G. (1995). Conflict Management in an International Teaching Assistant Training Program: 12.
This paper discusses how the management of conflict in an international teaching assistant (ITA) training program can benefit all stakeholders and maintain good will between departments and the ITA program by encompassing strategies for mutual gain. It focuses on how the ITA training program at New Mexico State University has resolved many of the conflicts that arise among students, departments, and the program. The paper examines sources of conflict and various conflict scenarios, as well as possible solutions to these conflicts, such as arrangements for late ITA training programs and screenings for students who are unaware of the requirement and close coordination with department heads and faculty to ensure that they are aware of the school's requirements for ITA training. (MDM)

Dean, D. G. (1985). A Social Psychological Study of Conflict Resolution: May Day, 1970, At Yale University and New Haven, Connecticut (Peace, Nonviolence, Justice, Best Case Scenario), Boston University: 213.
Recognition of the existence of the problem of how to control nuclear weapons and prevent mass destruction leads me to an exploration of alternatives to violence; specifically, the fields of conflict management and conflict resolution. The understanding and application of potential tools which psychologists, mediators, and others may use as resources in constructive solutions to conflict has been handicapped by inadequate research. Through the study of a specific event, a "best case scenario," the process of nonviolent conflict resolution was explored. Interviews with key participants, the use of personal documents, historical and archival materials, including tapes and transcripts enabled a systematic and comparative analysis for the purpose of documenting the skills, characteristics, and attitudes which enhanced the process. Significant themes, mechanisms, and resources emerged from this research, which may potentially contribute to the area of peace and disarmament studies.

DeFiore, L. (1972). Trustee-Faculty Conflict, Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges Washington D.C.: 6.
Among the major conflicts that have surfaced is the longstanding conflict between faculty and trustees. The first part of this paper summarizes the major findings of the principal areas of possible conflict between these two groups. The data upon which this study is based were collected from national samples of trustees and faculty by means of a mailed questionnaire. The second part of the paper deals with an analysis of, and a proposal for, resolution of the principal area of conflict between trustees and faculty. Given the amount of rhetoric emanating from faculty about trustees, one would expect to find significant differences between these two groups on substantive issues in higher education. However, the data in this study indicate otherwise. (Author/PG)

Demeter, J. and K. Marion (1974). "Peace Studies Courses."
This publication provides a descriptive list of university peace studies programs and organizations that maintain resources in peace education. After a brief introduction in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 describes 34 undergraduate peace studies programs in universities in Canada, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Chapter 3 describes six graduate programs in peace studies at various seminaries and universities in Canada, United Kingdom, and the United States. Chapter 4 lists colleges and universities in the United States at which peace studies courses are being established or are being already taught but for which no information was available. Chapter 5 lists 33 peace research institutes that do some teaching in Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Gernmany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Chapter 6 describes summer school programs in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, and Norway. Chapter 7 lists nine centers which have materials which would be useful to teachers of peace studies at the college, high school, and elementary levels. (Author/DE)

DeMitchell, T. A. (1980). "Judicial Nonintervention in Scholastic Matters." College Student Journal 14(2): 146-48.
Disputes between school officials and students over actions taken in academic matters have increasingly become the subject of litigation. This paper addresses the question of whether academic decisions are subject to review by the courts. It takes a close look at the traditional nonintervention stance adopted by the judiciary. (Author)

Dennis, E. E. (1992). "Freedom of Expression, the University, and the Media." Journal of Communication 42(2): 73-82.
Discusses the University of Oregon's long and proud tradition of protecting freedom of speech in light of the current controversy over freedom of expression on U.S. campuses and in the community at large. Discusses multiculturalism and political correctness on campus, and advocates more dispute resolution through public discussion. (SR)

Dennison, G. M., M. E. Drummond, et al. (1997). "Collaborative Bargaining in Public Universities." Negotiation Journal 13(1): 61-81.

Diaz, E. M., J. W. Minton, et al. (1987). "Labor Relations Update: A fair nonunion grievance procedure." Personnel 64: 13-18.
The authors describe a functioning university-based grievance procedure on a nonunion campus (Duke University) where the process is controlled by management. An unusual feature is the use of students as employee advocates

Dilts, D. and H. Samavati (1994). "Higher Education: Fertile ground for ADR." Dispute Resolution Journal 49(1): 61-66.

Doelker, R. E. (1989). "Mediation in Academia: Practicing What We Preach." Mediation Quarterly 7(2): 157-161.

Dolin, E. J. and L. E. Susskind (1992). "A Role for Simulations in Public Policy Disputes: The Case of National Energy Policy." Simulation & Gaming 23(1): 20-44.
Discussion of the use of consensus-building techniques to resolve public policy disputes focuses on the use of a simulation of the conflict that needs to be resolved. An example is given of the National Energy Policy Simulation that was designed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Harvard Public Disputes Program. (38 references) (LRW)

Dotson, A. B., D. R. Godschalk, et al. (1989). The planner as dispute resolver : concepts & teaching materials. Washington, DC, National Institute for Dispute Resolution.

Douglas, J. (1989). "Arbitration in Academe." National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions Newsletter 17(2): 1-7.

Downs, J. R. (1992). "Dealing with Hostile and Oppositional Students." College Teaching 40(3): 106-08.
Techniques for college teachers averting or resolving conflicts with students include examining one's own contribution to the conflict, conferring in a neutral setting, finding common ground, using cooperative learning exercises, avoiding defensiveness, talking with colleagues, integrating problem solving into lessons, and using direct confrontation only as a last resort. (MSE)

Drumm, K. (1994). The State of Mediation Practice in Labor Relations in (Higher) Education: A review of the literature. Nova Southeastern University Conflict Resolution Resource Service: 26.

Dunn, M. S. (1996). "Mediation: One Alternative to Traditional Judicial Proceedings." College Student Affairs Journal 15(2): 40-48.
Presents a model of conflict resolution as an alternative, or in addition, to traditional disciplinary systems. Method relies on mediation and employs a "win/win" philosophy which allows and encourages students to peacefully resolve their own disputes. Believes that the program bolsters self-esteem and helps students resolve differences. (RJM)